Introduction and Paraphrase prepared by Warren Rohde & Rick Bohn
4Q158 is also known as 4QPPa, and The
Reworked Pentateucha. 4Q158 is grouped with 4Q364-7, and
together are called the Reworked Pentateuch. 4Q158 contains portions of
Genesis, Exodus, and Deuteronomy. Most lines are exactly as they appear
in the Bible and some are extrabiblical. In general, 4Q158 parallels
quotes from the Pentateuch with minor additions. Some scholars wonder if
it could be an atypical version of biblical manuscripts. Wise, Abegg-Jr, and Cook (pg 200) also present a
similar theory suggesting we may be dealing with a "wild" text of the
bible. A "wild" text is of a form vastly different from a "standard"
version. This may be true when considering the entire Reworked
Pentateuch, but since 4Q158 largely consists of direct quotes from
sections of Genesis, Deuteronomy, and Exodus, it by itself would not be
considered a wild text.
Emanuel Tov and
other scholars have suggested that 4Q365 is another copy of 4Q158. A
relationship exists between the two in that they both contain material
from Exodus although the readable sections are different. Considering
the large portion of unreadable material in both documents it is
conceivable, although difficult to prove, that the two could be
duplicates of each other.
Fragment 1-2 contains lines from Genesis
32:24-32 and Exodus 4:27-28, with extrabiblical additions. An addition
to Genesis 32:30 is the exact wording Jacob received from God. Another
interesting point is the tradition told in Genesis 32:32 'one does not
eat from a certain portion of the thigh muscle' is transformed into a
direct command from God. Fragment 4, lines 1and 2 appear to be the
second half of Exodus 3:12. Lines 4-5 are a variation of Exodus 24:4-6,
and the final lines are extrabiblical reflecting Gods covenant with the
Fragment 6 contains Exodus 20:19-21. This is
expanded upon with Gods affirmation of Moses' statement to the people,
and goes onto instill additional fear by holding them accountable to
live up to God's commandments.
combines Exodus 20:12-17, Deuteronomy 5:30-31, Exodus 20:22-26, and
Exodus 21:1-10, with small extrabiblical additions. The 1st half of line
5 is such an addition. It is suggested by Wise, Abegg-Jr, and Cook that
there may be some attempted biblical interpretation taking place. For
example by mixing Exodus 20 with Deuteronomy 5 the author may have been
attempting to clear up the confusing chronology surrounding the
revelation at Sinai. Ancient scholars noticed that Moses went up the
mountain seven times, but only explicitly descended twice. In order to
correct the chronology one has to rearrange the order of the events.
Certain aspects of 4Q158 seem to represent this sort of problem solving.
Fragment 10-12 closely parallels Exodus 21:32 to
22:13 with a small quantity of minor differences.
Fragment 14, an extrabiblical passage, records
God speaking in the first person to a then current leader of Israel,
probably Abraham or Jacob. God is providing a view into the future by
revealing his intentions to desolate Egypt and promote the position of
Israel for generations to come.
32:25-30 Jacob wrestled with [a man] until [daybreak.
Realizing he could not win against Jacob the man struck him on his
thigh, and dislocated his hip]. They continued wrestling until early
morning. [The man said, "Let me go for the day is breaking:" Jacob
agreed to let go if the man 5blessed him] The man asked him
his name and Jacob told him. [The man said, "You shall no longer be
called Jacob, but Israel. For you have striven with God] and humans and
have prevailed." Jacob asked him his name, and he said, "Why is it you
ask my name?" Then he blessed Jacob and said, " May the Lord make you
fruitful, [know]ledgeable, insightful, and prevent you from sin for this
day, and forever [...]" 10Then the man left.
Jacob named the place where he saw God face to face, Penuel . As Jacob was leaving Penuel (limping because of
his injury) God appeared and said, "You shall not eat [the thigh muscle
that is on the hip socket." To this day the Israelites do not eat the
thigh muscle] on the hip socket, [because he struck Jacob there.]
Ex 4:27- 28[God
said] to Aaron, "Go [into the wilderness] to meet [Moses." Aaron went
and met Moses at the mountain of God where he
kissed him. Moses told] Aaron everything 15God said to him.
Moses said, "The Lord [has spoken] to me, saying, 'When you have brought
the people out [of Egypt ...'] to go as slaves, and consider, they
number thirty ....] the Lord, God [...]
1And Jacob called [...] in this earth
[...] my fathers in order to enter [...]
1When you bring the people out of
Egypt worship me on this mountain. So Moses built an altar there, and
set up twelve pillars to represent the twelve tribes of Israel. Then he
prepared a burnt offering on the altar [...Moses took half the blood and
put it ] 5in bowls, Ex 24:6 and
the other half he painted on the [altar ... God said to Moses, "...]
that I revealed to Abraham and to Isaac [and to Jacob ... the contract
that I made ] with them to be their God, and the people's [...]
1 Ex 19:20-
21 [like us, and live. Come and hear everything God tells
us. Then tell us everything God said. [we will listen to you, but] don't
let [God] talk to us or we [will die." Moses said, "Do not fear; for God
has come to test you] [and t]o put the fear of [God in you so that you
do not sin." The people stood at a distance, while Moses entered the
darkness where] God was.
God said to Moses,
["I have heard what the people have said to you. They are correct in all
they have said. If] 5they continue to fear [Me and obey all
the commandments all may go well for them and their children forever!
Now that you have heard] My words tell them, ['I will give them a
prophet like you from their own people; This prophet will speak
everything I tell him. Anyone] who does not listen [to this prophet, I
will hold accountable.
Any prophet who
speaks falsely in My name,] or spea[ks in the name of other gods will
die. You may ask, "How will we know if a prophet speaks the
LORDs words?"] If [the things a prophet says do not
happen it's not the LORDs word. This prophet has spoken
presumptuously, but do fear him."]
17 Honor your [father] and your mother, [so that you may
live long in the land God will give you. You shall not murder. You shall
not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear] false
witness [against] your [neighbor]. You shall not desire [your]
nei[ghbor's] wife, [slave, ox, donkey, or anything that belongs to your
neighbor]. God said to Moses, Dt 5:30- 31
"Tell them to [return to their tents. And with you next to Me I will
tell them all the commandments, statues] and ordinances you are to teach
them. They are to follow these rules in the land [I am about to give
5The people returned to
their tents, but Moses remained before Ex 20:22-26
[God. God said, "tell the Israelites] 'that they have
seen Me speak to you from heaven. They are not to make [gods of silver
or gold. They need to only make an altar of earth, and sacrifice] on it
your burnt offerings and offers of well being, your sheep [and oxen.
Every place where I cause My named to be remembered I will come and
bless you. If] you build me [an altar of stone] do not use formed stone.
For by using a chisel [upon it you ruin it. Do not go up steps to My
altar or your nakedness will be exposed] on it"
1 Ex 21:32-
37 [If a bull kills a slave man or woman, the bull's
owner is to pay the slave owner] thirty sil[ver] shekels [and the bull is to be stoned] 2 [The
owner] of an uncovered well [is responsible to compensate] the owner of
any bull or ass that falls into it and return the [dead animal to the
owner. If a bull kills someone else's bull, the killing bull is to be
sold] with the proceeds from the sale and the dead bull [shared between
both owners]. 4 However, if the killing bull [was known to]
gore [and its owner did not keep it in, the bulls would be exchanged
live for dead]. 5 If someone steals a bull or ewe and
slaughters it or s[ells] it, [he is to repay the owner with five bulls
for a stolen bull and four sheep for a stolen ewe. If the thief was
caught during the break in] and was killed, he should not be the subject
of blood retaliation. Ex 22:1-13 If the
thief was caught stealing in daylight hours he will be subjected to
blood retaliation. [The thief must pay for what is stolen. If he has no
worth, he will be sold for the value of the stolen property. If 7
the stolen property is found in his possession, he will pay double
if it is a live bull, ass or ewe. If a man allows his flock to graze on
a field or vineyard owned by someone else, he is to repay with the
produce from his own field. If he has allowed his flock to consume the
entire field, he is to repay with the best of his fields or vineyards.
Damages to a field as a result of fire are the responsibility of the
person who started the fire. Thieves who steal property that has been
entrusted in a neighbor's care are required to pay double. If the thief
is not found, the person to whom the property was entrusted shall
approach the house of God to decide if he is guilty of the theft. Both
parties are to present their case to God, and if either party is
convicted he shall pay his neighbor double. 12 [When someone
has given] livestock to his neighbor for safekeeping and it dies,
becomes injured or is stolen without an eye witness, judgment will be
made while both parties are under oath before the Lord. If the entrusted
neighbor states under oath that he did not harm or steal the owner's
property, the owner is forced to agree and no repayment is required. If
the entrusted neighbor was present at the time of the theft, he is
required to pay damages to the owner. If the animal as torn to pieces,
14[the remains are to be shown to the owner and payment is
not required.] If an animal is loaned to a friend and it dies or is torn
to pieces without the owner present, the borrower is responsible for
payment of damages.
2 [all the fl]esh and all the spirits
3 [...] as a blessing for the land 4[...] the
people [...] this; Egypt shall be desolated [...] I shall create in
[...] [I will rescue them from] the restraint of Egypt's power and
liberate them from Egyptian control. I shall make them My people forever
[and ever...I will bring them out] of Egypt. 7 Future
generations [will settle in the] land safely for[ever ... but, I will
hurl Egypt into] the heart of the sea at the deepest part [...] where
they will live 9 [...] [bo]rders [...]
 Martinez. Pg. 218
 Penuel means the face of God
 Mt. Sinai, also called Mt. Horeb.
 About 12 ounces
Martinez, Florentino Garcia. The Dead Sea Scrolls
Translated. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1996.
Wise, Abegg, Jr. And Cook. The Dead Sea Scrolls, A New
Translation. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishing.
1996. Pp. 199-204.
Vermes, G. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English.
New York, New York: Allen Lane The Penguin Press. 1997. Pp. 429,
Intro. to the Hebrew Bible
by Warren Rohde & Rick Bohn