Targum of Job
4QtgJob=4Q157, 11QtgJob=11Q10

Paraphrase by John Carrigan

Introduction by Alan Humm

Introduction

Two targum manuscripts of Job were found at Qumran. Since they are both incomplete and do not overlap, we do not know whether they represent the same targumic tradition or not, although that is likely. The Aramaic translation is relatively straight forward, with an occasional tendency to abridge slightly. Extant portions contain none of the flights of midrashic expansion that one gets in some other targumic traditions.

Paraphrase

4Q Targum of Job (4Q157[4QtgJob])

Frag 1 col.i

(= Job 3:5-?) 2{...} a cloud[ will come] over him 3 [... in a time not in the same dimension 4-5] [...]...

Frag 1 col.ii

(=Job 4:16-5:4) 1...[...] 2 Can a man speaking to God [be rigth?...] 3 and to his angels[he causes insanity...] 4 which [are formed] in dirt[...] 5 and many [...] die and not from knowledge[...] will you contemplate? Blank Maybe he does not kill the weak[...] 8 But I have seen a cruel person ...[...] 9 ...[...].

11Q Targum of Job(11Q10[11QtgJob])

Col. I

(=Job 17:14-18:4) 1 [... my mother and sister are dead]. And what did I do [...]2[...] Maybe [they will go] with me to Sheol?[...] 3 [... in the dirt] we will be buried? Blank 4 Bildad the Shu[ite replied...] 5 [...] will you complete you thought? [...] 6 [...] do we look like animals?[...] 7[...] Maybe from your view point [...] 8 [... the rock ] from its point?[...]

Col. II

(=Job 19:11-19) 1 I bore his rage and [thinks I'm...] 2 His henchmen came and destroy [... My brothers and I] 3 have remourse, my house staff. My butler, does not recognize [...] I call but he does not respond [...] 6 I'm embarrassed to show myself to my wife [...] 7 The evil hurts me [...] 8 everyone who[...]

Col. III

(=Job 19:29-20:6) 1 [...] evil. Blank [...] 3 [... he answered: Here is my heart [...] 4 [...] I will listen to my crimes, but the soul [...] 5 [... Do you not understand infinity, from ...[...] 6 [...] Because praising the cruel [...] 7 [...] goes by quickly [...] 8 [...] and he looked [toward] the sky[...].

Col. IV

(=Job 21:2-10) 1 [...] personally[...] I know you laugh. [...] 3 as a result [my soul]does not get [tense...] 4 be quiet...] 5 I am mesmerized. Why do the corrupt become richer? Their children[...] 7 in plain sight. Their houses [...] 8 God is with them. [...] 9 their (cow) gives birth[ and does not miscarriage..].

Col. V

(=Job 21:20-27) 1[...] he looks [...] their destruction and around[...] 2 [...] would like God in their home[...] [...] 3[...] life is short ? is God [...] 4[...] the most powerful? His assistants [...] 5 the care of the bones. Another dies [cruelly] in spirit [...] 6 [...] starving, they both[lie on the dirt...] 7 [...] on top of them I know [what your thinking...] 8 [...] you planned [against me][...]

Col. VI

(=Job 22:3-9) 1 [...] God 2 [...] your way [...] will he make a convenient with you? 4[...] there is no 5 [...] your brothers for nothing 6 [...] the parched not 7 [...] bread. And you said 8 [...] his face 9 [...] was emotionless.

Col. vii

(=Job 22:16-22) 1 they passed away[...] 2 They prayed to G[od..] 3 to our God [...] But the evil group [...] 5 and marked and [...] 6 How can that [...] not [...] 7 Look [...] 8 Receive [...].

Col. VIIa

(=Job 23: 1-8) 1 [...] Job replied [...] 2[...] because my voice [...] 3 [...] my whining. Indeed, I would know and I would find God 4 [...] heaven. I would say to[God ...] 5 [...] I would repent an I would know [...] 6 [...] I know what he will say to me. [...] 7 [...he might ] treat me unfairly. Indeed until [...] 8[...] for truth and how [...] 9 [...] If advancement[...].

Col. VIII

(=Job 24: 12-17) 1 From cities[...] 2 he complains <4 in its trail [...] 5 and to the needy; and in the evening. [...] 6 the darkness saying[...] 7 and he will sin [...] 8 in evil[...] 9 for them[...]

Col. IX

(=job 24:24-26:2) 1 [...] they come together 2 [...] Who will answer me and [...] 3 [...] Blank Bildad replied [...] 4 [...] God controls everything; he does [...] 5 [...] in his power. Is there trust for[...] 6 pr for whom does [...] not rise 7 [...] God and how will he be fair [...] 8 [...] unchanged and the galaxy [...] not 9 [...] mankind, this warm [...] 10 [...] and he said << Can you possibly,[...]?

Col. X

(=Job 26:10-27:4) 1 [...] to the realm of evil; 2 [...] he dissects them and they are worried about 3 [...] the sea, and he killed with his knowledge. 4 [...] he makes I glimmer, his hand struck fleeing snake. 5 [...] their paths. And we only hear and echo. 6[...] he will know>> Blank 7 [...] Blank 8 [...] and said <9 [...] my spirit which while [...] 10 [...] in my nose they won't say [...]

Col. XI

(=Job 27:11-20) 1[...] in God's control and the work of 2[...] can be viewed by all. Why 3 [...] the cruel man 4 [...] they steal from him. If 5 [...] the sword , they will plunder, and feel fulfilled 6 [...] and their [...] no 7 [...] money, and increases like dust 8[...] and honest man will give away his wealth 9 [...] like a house 10 [...] lies down and is not taken. 11[...] like water the evils.

Col. XII

(= Job 28:4-13) 1 foot[...] 3 sapphires [...] 4 not [...] 5 the serpent enters. [...] 9 man [...].

Col. XIII

(=Job 28: 20-28) 1 the place of knowledge? [...] 2 it hides from the birds of the sky. [...] 3 << By word of mouth we know who you are >> [...] 4 in it, since he [...] 5 for reaching [...] 6 When he made the wind [...] 7 by one fall stroke. When he made [...] 8 fluffy clouds. Meanwhile[...] 9 And he said to the sons [ of mankind...] 10 and to leave from [...].

Col. XIV

(=Job 29: 7-16) 1 in the morning at the entrance of the city in the center of town[...] 2 Children, when they see me and [scholars] 3 Powerful men don't speak to me and push me aside [...] 4 The leaders disguise their voices;[...] don't speak. 5 They once praised me when I spoke[...] because I freed the poor [...] 7 no one helps me. The blessing of the last one [...] 8 the widow prays for me [...] 9 I wore a garment made of goats skin [...] 10[...] and feet for the lame [...] 11[...] I did not know[...].

Col. XV

(=Job 29: 24-30:4) 1 [...] I thanked them and they did not believe[...] 2 [...] I chose my way and I was in control [...] 3 [...] at the top of his legions, an like a man who [...] the depressed 4 [...] They harassed my children [...] 5 [...] Their fathers would not sit with the lower class.[...] 6[...] I did not like them and under their influence [...] 7 [...] they searched for food to feed their soul[...] 8 [...] evil which they ate [...] 9[...] sticks as their bread [...]

Col. XVI

(=Job 30: 13-20) 1 [...] they came to destroy me, and there is no savior. 2 [...] for them. As I become even greater in pain 3 [...] The evil pain trys to over come my body 4 [...] I have no possessions 5 [...] my salvation. Now the pain irritates me 6 [...] days of intense pain I feel 7 [...] my bones and joints ache tremendously[...] 8 [...] I thrash around in pain 9[...] they encircle me and throw me to the ground 10 [...] to you [...]

Col. XVII

(=Job 30 :25-31:1) 1 [...they ] harassed [me] and not 4 [...] I walked 5[...] I shouted 6 [...] for the ostriches 7 [...] of

Col. XVIII

(=Job 31 :8-16) 1 He will eat [...] my heart for a woman [...] 3 She will smash [...] anger 4 and is a sin[...] which up to Abaddon shall eat[...] If I was quick in judging my servant [...] what will I do 7 when he awakes [...] look 8 he made me [...] oneself. If I denied [...] I stopped to be consumed.

Col. XIX

(=Job 31 :26-32) 1 It was visible, and at the moon [...] my heart, 2 and kissed my mouth[...] I would have lied 3 to El Shadi[...] I become happy 4 in his misfortune [...] my plaque, and he listened [...] in my rage 6 and took [...] my taste of sin by asking [...] the men 8 of my house: who [...] 9 [did] not [...]

Col. XX

(=Job 31:40-32:3) 1 substituted for wheat [...] 2 [...] from the pine. Completed are [...] 3 These [...] from answering [...] Job was honest[...] 5 Blank 6 Meanwhile he became angry [...] of the clan of Rome[...] 8 and also against [...] 9 words [...]

Col. XXI

(=Job 32: 10-17 ) 1 my words, I as well. O.K. I waited [...] 2 you stopped, though you wanted to finish[...] 3 and you gave Job nothing [...] 4 to his knowledge. Maybe you should say [...] 5 for this we punish God and not man[...] 6 words and he does not respond [...] 7 and they are quiet while I wait for a response[...] 8 they leave and say nothing [...] 9 I to said nothing

Col. XXII

(=Job 33:6-16) 1[...] Alright, my horror will not shock you[...] 2 [...] burden. Surely you spoke in my ear and the sound [...] 3 [...] I am clean and there is no sin in me, I am blameless[...] 4[...] If he finds I have sinned he will take me [...] 5 [...] he places me in the prison and binds me with chains[...] 6[...] because God is greater than man[...] 7[...] you will speak arrogantly, because in all your actions[...] 8 [...] God knows how to communicate to everyone [...] 9[...] in dreams, during the night [...] while you sleep in bed[...] ...[...] ...[...]

Col. XXIII

(=Job 33:24-32) 1 and he said<< Free from harm [...] 2 from the fire that consumes him [...] with 3 youth and returns to his childhood [...] and he will hear him 4 and will see his face when saving him[?...} and based on his work he will reward him. And he will say [...] yet 6 he has not rewarded me based on my choice. He has saved [...] 7 It will be clear. Behold [...] 8 [on]ce, twice, three times[ to the] man for [...] 9 living (creatures). Be mindful of this [...] I will speak. 10 [If] you have words [...]

Col. XXIV

(=Job 34:6-17) 1 of sin. Who [...] sin? And associates 2 with criminals [...] cruel men. For he states << A man will change [...] following god>> 4 Now, men of [...] God does not deceive or create evil [...] he rewards man 6 [...] Will God, possibly, lien now, and lord [...] whom created the earth 8 and formed the world? [...] takes air away from him and he will die [...] they shall die 10 [...] my word. Deception possibly.

Col. XXV

(=Job 34:24-34) 1[...] to the infinitely powerful , and put other [...] 2 [...] he knows their action and throws into the place [...] 3[...] his way and have not kept this covenant[...] 4[...] of the poor and hears the cry's of the tortured [...] 5 [...] covers his face who will answer him about a tribe [...] 6 [...] the evil man has control. They create [...] trip. 7[...] I pray for him, in only him [...] 8 [...] I did not pursue, because [...] 9 [...] you decide and not I [...] 10 [...] words and man[...]

Col. XXVI

(=Job 35 :6-14) 1 to you. And at a time your wrong doings rise, how do you [handle him?] Are you right, what 2 does he need, or what does he get in return? Your wrongs (change) [ a human similar to yourself] 3 your equally, a child of mankind. As a result of the multitude [ of enslavers ] they cry and wail 4 facing all; yet they don't [ ask where is] God 5 who created us and gave us [...] for farming 6 at night; who separated us from animals and has made us smarter than birds? 7 They cry, yet he does not [ respond out of righteousness] 8 to the sinner. For God [ does not hear those who mislead, and the lord to] the insignificant, shows no interest. If you say [...] 10[...] ...[...]

Col. XXVIII

(=Job 36:23-33) 1 you [achieve inequality. Knowing] that their actions are right, men have witness these actions. Every man considers them and the children of man kind view from a distance. God is all powerful and immortal.[ wee do not] know [them] , and how long he lives. For 5 [ he tracks the ] clouds and directs the rain storms, and their clouds release 6 [rain drops] [ upon] many people. Indeed who molds the clouds[with great din] who hides and reveals[ light] [...] hidden ; he will use them to judge the nation, 9 [...] upon his command [...] 10[...] control them[...]

Col. XXIX

(=Job 37 :10-19) 1 above the water. Using water he causes the cloud to discharge fine And he says<< The people should here this!>> and they perform their jobs; he placed the people in control of everything on land. Whether to help or destroy or for starvation and poverty . Consider this Job, and rise contemplate the power of God. Have you any idea what God has placed upon them, and how he makes light shine from clouds? Can you protect the cloud with your powers? Since your power [...] Because he has infinite knowledge[May be you create] the storm clouds. Can you change a cloud into a mirror 10 He knows...

Col. XXX

(=Job 38:3-13) 1 Protect your grain like a man [ and I will test] [you] and you will respond 2 Where were you when I created the earth? Answer, if you can 3 who created , measurements? Or who used a tape measure? Or what are its bases set to or who set the cornerstone. 7 When the stars shown in the morning and all the angels of God song? Can you lock the entrace to the sea when it tries to leave the deep murky bottom. When did you where clouds as cloths and fog as baby's cloths. Can you set the limits of the sea. Did you say it can only go this far and not go beyond your waves. In the past did you control [ the morning] the ends of the earth [...]

Col. XXXI

(=Job 38: 23-43) 1 which[ I keep for] times of danger for the day of war and rebellion? [...] where does the wind come from? Does the wind come from the heavens? Who has set the period for rain and a track for the clouds to bring rain to the dessert, where no man lives; to water the plains to cause grass to grow. Who is the father of the rain, and who controls the fog. And who produces the frost .. . and [darkness of the sky] who created it ?] Like a rock coated with water and the faces of [darkness?] of the Pleiodes or you [open] the fence of Orion[...] you undo the North Star(?) with his sons? [...] 10 [...] the clouds[...]

Col. XXXII

(= Job 39: 1-11) the goats or birth pangs of [...] they are mature; do you know when they were born. They give birth and the sons become out casts. Do you cause them to leave? They raise their son and force them away. Who set the donkey free and unchained the restraints on the anager? I created the desert as the anager's home and the ground his home and pays no attention to the noise of the city and to the commands of his master. He eats from the mountains grass and eats all that is green. Will the bull choose to serve you or will he sleep in your stable. Will you harness[the bull] with a yoke and will he till the soil behind you. [...] ? Do you trust his strength?

Col. XXXIII

(=Job 39 :20-29) 1 [...] Do you scare his (horse) with a powerful [...] 2 in his growling fright and fear. He wanders throughout the valley, and shakes and rejoices 3 and throws himself into danger. He ignores fear and does not flinch 4 from a sword. He prepares to shout and arrow 5 as he is armed with a staff and a sword, the bugle sounds and he yells Aha, and from 6 a distance he smells combat, and relishes the sound of swords rattling and war cries 7 Does the raptor fly with it's wings to the wind? Or does the eagle glide at your command and the 9 raptor builds [his] nest high in the cliffs he lives and rests[...] 10[...] ...[...]

Col. XXXIV

(=Job 40: 5-11) 1 [...] end Blank [...] 2 God answered Job/ form [ out of nowhere(?)/] and the cloud and told him protect your genitals 3 then like a man and I will question you and you will answer me Would you assume 4 that judgement is void and place blame upon me so you appear innocent? Or 5 do you have an arm like God or thunder with a voice like his? Dispose of greatness and haughtiness and wear splendor, in glory and in honor. Dispose of your rage and view the righteous men and humble him and destroy ever 8 proud soul and dispose of the rest of the cruel people and bury9 them in the ground Blank and cover them with ashes 10[...] there is

Col. XXXV

(=Job 40:23-31) 1[...] even though ] 2 the Jordan's banks [should overflow] he trusts that he will receive it [...] 3 who will control him when he raises his head, or restrain his jaws. Will you catch a crocodile with a hook or tie a rope around it tongue? Will you put a muzzle on his nose and stab his jaw with a knife. Will he speak 6 nicely to you or will he speak to humbly? Will he 7 make a promise with you or will you treat him as a slave for eternity? Will you play 8 with him like a bird, or chain him up for your daughters? and [...] 9 ov[er him...] and they shall take him out of [Canaan] 10 [...] of fish[...]

Col. XXXVI

(=Job 41: 7-17) 1[...] ...[...] 2 [One] adheres to the other and wind does not flow between them. They 3 hold each other and they do not separate. His sneeze triggers 4 the fire between his eyes like the brightness of dawn; from his mouth 5 torches appear, they leap like tongues of fire; smoke billows from his nostrils, like a torch burning incense; his breath spews coals and sparks leap from his mouth. His neck contains strength and before him 8 power surges. The fold of his flesh are taunt , forged within him like iron; and his heart [...] like stone [...] 10[...]...[...]

Col. XXXVII

(=Job 41: 25-42:6) 1[...]...[...] 2 and he is the king of all reptiles. Blank 3 Job answered and said to God: I know that you 4 can do anything, and you do not lack power or wisdom. 5 I spoke once and I will not revoke it, twice, and 6 I will not add to it. Listen then and I will say to you; I will question you 7 and you will answer me. I knew of you only by word of mouth and now I have seen you for this I will be obliterated and destroyed and will turn into dust 9 and ash Blank

Col. XXXVIII

(=Job 42:9-12 ) 1 [...] and he did [...] God; and God heard Job's Voice and forgave 3 his sins on his account. And God turned /to Job/ in his mercy 4 and doubled all his possessions for him. And there came to 5 Job all his friends and all his brothers and all his acquaintances and ate 6 bread with him his house , and comforted him for all the evil that 7 God had brought upon him. And each one gave him a eve 8 and each one a gold ring 9 And God blessed Job in the end, because he had[...]

Work Cited

Holy Bible: The New Revised Standard Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Inc, 1989.

Martinez, Florentino Garcia. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English. New York: Brill, 1996.

Pope, Marvin H. Job: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New York: Double Day, 1973.

Vermes, Geza. The complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English/ translated from Hebrew and Aramaic and edited. New York: Penguin Putnam Inc, 1997.

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12/7/98

prepared for Intro. to the Hebrew Bible
by John Carrigan
CarriganJ@albnet.alb.edu