The Epistle of Barnabas
Translation by Robert Kraft
Greetings, sons and daughters, in the Name of the
Lord who loved us, in peace.
 Seeing that God's righteous acts toward you are so
extraordinary and abundant, my joy over your favored and
illustrious spirits is unbounded -- you have received such
grace, such an implantation of the pneumatic gift!  Wherefore I, who also hope to be saved,
inwardly rejoice all the more because I can actually see that the
spirit which is on you has been poured out in your midst
from the abundance of the fountain of the Lord [see 11:2*]. My
eagerly anticipated visit to you has so wonderfully exceeded all
expectations concerning you!
Purpose and themes (1:4-8)
 Therefore, I am convinced of this -- indeed, I am all the
more conscious of it because I know that he who spoke many things
in your midst was my traveling companion in the Way of Righteousness, the Lord; and for this reason I myself am constrained
at all times to love you more than my own soul --
for great faith and love dwell in you, with hope of
obtaining the life he gives!  Therefore, since it has occurred to me
that if I am diligent in imparting to you a measure of what I
have received it will be to my credit for having ministered
to such spirits, I have hastened to send you this brief
communication so that along with your faith
you might also have perfect gnosis.
 There are, then, three basic doctrines of the Lord
of life: Hope, the beginning and end of our faith; and
Righteousness, the beginning and end of judgment; (and) Love, a witness of the joy and gladness of works done in righteousness.
 For the Master has made known to us
through the prophets what already has come to pass and what is
now occurring, and he has given us a foretaste of what is about
to happen. Thus as we observe each of these things
being worked out as he said, we ought all the more abundantly
and enthusiastically draw near in fear of him .  And
now, not as a Teacher but as one from your very midst, I
will point out a few things which will enable
you to rejoice in the present circumstances.
Transition to the first main section (2:1-3)
[2:1] Since, then the present days are evil and he who is now at
work possesses the power, we ought to walk circumspectly and seek out
the Lord's righteous requirements.  The auxiliaries of our faith, then, are Fear
and Endurance, while Patience and Self-control also
fight along at our side.  Thus while these allies remain in a pure
state [see 19:8c] in relation to the Lord, there rejoice with them
Wisdom, Understanding, Knowledge, and Gnosis.
I. What the Lord requires (2:4-3:6)
 For he made it clear to us through all the prophets that he needs neither sacrifices nor whole burnt
offerings nor offerings in general -- as he says in one place:
 What good is the multitude of your sacrifices to me? says the Lord.
I am satiated with burnt offerings of rams and the fat of lambs,
 Therefore he set these things aside [9:4b; 16:2], so that the
new law of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is not tied to a
yoke of necessity [cf. Acts 15:10], might have its own offering
which is not man-made [see 16:7b].
and I do not want the blood of bulls and goats --
not even if you come and appear before me!
For who has required these things from your hands?
Do not continue to tread my (Temple) court.
If you bring finely ground flour, it is vain;
offering of incense is an abomination to me,
I cannot bear your new moon festivals and Sabbaths [see 15:8; Isa. 1:11-13].
 And again he says to them:
Did I command your fathers, when they were coming out of
the land of Egypt, to offer burnt offerings and sacrifices to me?
 But, rather, this is what I commanded them [see Jer. 7:22 f.] --
 Therefore, since we are not without understanding,
we ought to perceive the gracious intention of our
Father. For he is speaking to us, desiring that we who are
not misled as they were should seek how we
might approach him with our offering.
Let none of you hold a grudge in his heart against his neighbor,
and love not a false oath [see Zech. 7:9 f. = 8:16 f.].
[10a] To us, then, he speaks thus:
A sacrifice to God is a broken heart [see Ps. 51:17];
[10b] Therefore, brethren, we ought to pay strict attention to the
matters which concern our salvation, lest the Wicked One
causes error [4:1; 12:10; 14:5] to slip in among us and hurls us
away from our life!
[3:1] Therefore he speaks again concerning these things to them:
An odor well pleasing to the Lord is a heart which glorifies its creator.
Why do you make a fast to me, says the Lord,
 But to us he says:
so that today your voice is heard wailing?
This is not the sort of fast I have chosen, says the Lord,
not a man humiliating his soul.
 Not even if you bend your neck in the shape of a circle,
and deck yourselves out in sackcloth and ashes --
you cannot even call such conduct an acceptable fast! [Isa.
Behold, this is the fast which I have chosen, says the Lord.
 For this reason, therefore, brethren, when he foresaw
how the people whom he prepared in his Beloved One would believe in childlike innocence [see 6:11], the Patient
One gave us a preview concerning everything
[2:4], lest we be shattered to pieces as "proselytes" to their law .
Loose every bond of injustice,
untie the knots of forcibly extracted agreements.
Release the downtrodden with forgiveness,
and tear up every unjust contract.
Distribute your food to the hungry,
and if you see someone naked, clothe him.
Bring the homeless into your home,
and if you see someone of lowly estate, do not despise him,
nor (despise) anyone of your own household.
 Then your light will break forth early,
and your healing will arise quickly.
And your righteousness will go before you
and the glory of God will surround you.
 Then you will cry out, and God will listen to you;
While you are still speaking, he will say "Here I am" --
if you put away from you bonds and scornful gestures and words of
and give your food to the hungry without hypocrisy,
and have mercy on the person of lowly estate [Isa. 58: 6-10a].
II. Readiness in the shadow of crisis (4:1-14)
Transition to the new section (4:1-2)
[4:1] We must, then, carefully investigate the present situation
[cf. 17:2] and seek out the things which are able to save us.
[1b] Therefore let us completely flee from all the works of lawlessness,
lest the works of lawlessness ensnare us [5:4];
 Let us give no leisure to our own soul so that it has opportunity
to associate with the wicked and sinful -- lest we become like them!
And let us hate the error of the present age [4:10a],
so that we might be loved in the age to come.
The imminent eschatological crisis (4:3-6a)
 The great final scandal is at hand, concerning which it has
been written -- as Enoch says. [3b] For the Master cut short
the times and the days [see 15:5] for this reason, that his Beloved
One might hasten and come into his inheritance.  And the
prophet speaks thus:
Ten kingdoms will reign on the earth.
 Similarly, Daniel says concerning the same one:
And afterward there will arise a little king,
who will humiliate three of the kingdoms simultaneously.
And I saw the fourth beast, wicked and powerful
 Therefore you ought to understand!
and more dangerous than all the beasts of the sea;
And how that ten horns sprouted from him,
and from them budded a little offshoot of a horn;
And how that it humiliated three of the great horns simultaneously.
Danger of misplaced security in the covenant (4:6b-8)
[6b] Furthermore, I also urge you [21:2, 4, 8] as one of your
own, and especially as one who loves you all more than I
love my own self, walk circumspectly
and do not be like certain people [4:2], compounding your sins
by claiming that your covenant is irrevocably yours. [6c] But they
lost it completely in the following manner, after Moses already
had received it --  for the scripture says:
And Moses was on the mountain fasting for forty days and forty
nights, and he received the covenant from the Lord,
stone tablets inscribed by the finger of the Lord's hand.
But when they turned to idols, they lost it.  For the Lord speaks
Moses, Moses, descend immediately, for your people whom you
led out from the land of Egypt have sinned.
And Moses understood, and he hurled the two tablets
from his hands. [8b] And the covenant (of the tablets) was
smashed to bits so that the covenant of Jesus, the Beloved One, might be sealed in our heart, in hope of his faith.
Parenthetical personal note (4:9a)
 But since I wish to write many things -- not as a Teacher
would, but as is fitting for a friend to do -- and to omit nothing of
what we have received [see 17:1], I hurry along. I am your
Warnings against overconfidence (4:9b-14)
[9b] Wherefore let us walk circumspectly in these
last days. For the entire period of our life and faith will
be wasted unless now, in the lawless time and in the impending
scandals, we resist as befits God's sons.  Therefore, lest
the Black One make deceitful entrance [2:10b], let us
flee from all that is irrelevant, let us hate completely [4:1b] the
works of the wicked way. [10b] Do not live monastic lives
by retiring to yourselves as though you have already attained the
righteous state, but by assembling together, seek out together
what is to your mutual advantage.  For the scripture
Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes,
[11b] Let us be pneumatics; let us be a perfect Temple
to God. To the best of our ability let us meditate
on the fear of God and strive to keep his commandments , so that we might rejoice in his ordinances.
 The Lord will judge the world impartially. Each man will
receive payment in accord with his deeds -- if he was good, his
righteousness precedes him; if he was wicked, the reward of
wickedness goes before him!  Thus on no account
should we slumber in our sins [4:2; cf. 4:6b] by relaxing as "those
who have been called" -- and the wicked Archon will
take advantage of his power over us [2:1] and push us away
from the kingdom of the Lord [2:10b].  And finally, my brethren, understand this: When you notice what
great signs and wonders were performed in Israel [5:8] and still
they have been abandoned, let us take heed lest
we be found to be, as it is written, "many called but few chosen"
[see Matt. 22:14].
and understanding in their own sight [Isa. 5:21].
III. Why the Lord endured suffering (5:1-8:7)
The Lord endured fleshly suffering to purify us (5:1-2)
[5:1] For it was for this reason that the Lord submitted to deliver
his flesh to destruction, that by the forgiveness of sins we might be
purified [8:1] -- that is, by the sprinkling (for purification) of his
blood.  For it is written concerning him -- partly with reference
to Israel [6:7b] and partly to us -- and it says thus:
He was wounded because of our lawless actions,
and he was rendered helpless because of our sins;
by his wounds we were healed [Isa. 53:5].
As a sheep to the slaughter was he led,
and as a lamb he was silent before his shearer [Isa. 53:7b].
Parenthetical admonition to exercise gnosis (5:3-4)
 We ought, therefore, to give heartfelt thanks to the Lord
because he has both given us gnosis of the things which
have come to pass, and has given us wisdom in the
present events -- nor are we without understanding
concerning what is about to happen [1:7; 17:1 f.].  But the
It is not unjust to spread out nets for capturing birds [Prov. 1:17].
[4b] This is what it is saying: It is just that a man should perish
if, although he has gnosis of the Way of Righteousness,
he becomes ensnared in the Way of Darkness.
The Lord endured to fulfill the promise(s) (5:5-7)
 And furthermore, my brethren, consider this: if the
Lord submitted to suffer for our souls -- he who is Lord of the
whole world, to whom God said at the foundation of the world:
Let us make man in accord with our image and likeness [Gen. 1:26a]
-- then how is it that he submitted to suffer at the hand of
men? [Cf. 7:2] Learn!  The prophets, after they had
received special insight from him, prophesied
concerning him. And he submitted so that he might break the power of
Death and demonstrate the resurrection from the dead --
thus it was necessary for him to be manifested in flesh.
 Also (he submitted) so that he might fulfill the promise to the
fathers [14:1] and, while he was preparing the new people for
himself and while he was still on earth, to prove
that after he has brought about the resurrection he will judge.
The Lord endured in flesh so that sinners could see him
 Furthermore, although he was teaching Israel and doing
such great wonders and signs [4:14], the result was not that they
loved him dearly for his preaching!  But when he chose his
own apostles who were destined to preach his gospel [8:3] -- men
who were sinful beyond measure so that he might prove
that he came not to call righteous but sinners [Mark 2: 17b parr.]
-- it was then that he revealed himself as God's Son
[12:10].  For if he had not come in flesh, how could men be
saved by looking at him? They cannot even gaze directly into
the rays of the sun, even though it is a work of his hands and is
destined to cease existing! [15:5]
The Lord endured to complete the number of Israel's sins
 Thus the Son of God came in flesh for this reason, that
he might bring to summation the total of sins [8:1-2; 14:5] of those
who persecuted his prophets to death.  So also he submitted
for this reason. [12b] For God says that the afflicting of his
flesh [7:2] came from them:
When they smite their own Shepherd,
 And he desired to suffer in such a manner, for it was necessary
so that he might suffer on the wood [7:5; 8:5; 12:1, 5]. [13b] For
one who prophesies concerning him says:
then the sheep of the flock will be lost [see Zech. 13:7].
Spare my soul from the sword [Ps. 22:20a]
 And again he says:
and affix my flesh with nails [see Ps. 119:120a (but in
LXX/OG text form)],
for a synagogue of wicked men have come upon me [see
Ps. 22: 16b].
Behold, I have bared my back for stripes,
and my cheeks for smiting [Isa. 50:6a],
but I have set my face as a solid rock [Isa. 50:7b].
Vindication of the Lord who endured (6:1-4)
[6:1] When, therefore, he made the commandment, what does
Who disputes my judgment? Let him oppose me.
[2b] And again, since he was established as a mighty Stone which
crushes, the prophet says of him:
Or who vindicates himself in my presence?
Let him draw near to the Lord's Servant.
 Woe to you, for you all will grow old like a garment,
and a moth will devour you! [Isa. 50:8b-9]
Behold, I will insert into the foundations of Zion a Stone which is
 Then what does he say?
precious, chosen, a cornerstone, prized [Isa. 28:16a].
And whoever trusts in him will live forever [8:5b; 11:10 f.].
[3b] Is our hope, then, on a stone? Not in the least! But he
speaks in such a way since the Lord has established his flesh in
[3c] For he says:
And he established me as a solid Rock [see Isa. 50:7b].
 And again the prophet says:
The very Stone which the builders rejected has become the
cornerstone! [Ps. 118:22]
[4b] And again he says:
This is the great and awesome Day which the Lord made [Ps. 118:24a (see 118:23)].
Summary statement about the Lord's suffering (6:5-7)
 I write to you more clearly so that you might understand . I am a slave devoted to your love.
 What, then, does the prophet say again?
A synagogue of wicked men encompasses me [Ps. 22:16b],
 Thus, since he was about to be manifested in flesh
and to suffer [12:2a], his passion was revealed beforehand . [7b] For the prophet says concerning Israel [5:2]:
they surround me as bees around honey [Ps. 118:12a],
and for my garments they cast lots [Ps. 22:18b].
Woe to them, for they devised a wicked plot against themselves
when they said, "Let us bind the Righteous One, for he is
displeasing to us" [Isa. 3:9b-10a; see Wisd. Sol. 2:12].
The good land of the new creation (6:8-19)
 What does the other prophet, Moses, say to them?
Behold, thus says the Lord God: Enter into the good land,
which the Lord promised [5:7] to Abraham and Isaac and
Jacob, and make it your inheritance -- a land flowing milk
and honey [see Exod. 33:1, 3; Deut. 6:18, etc.].
 And what does "gnosis" say? Learn!
Hope, it says, on that Jesus who is about to appear
to you in flesh [5:1]. For man is land suffering, for
Adam was formed [6:11-14] from the face of the land.
 What, then, does he say? "Into the good land -- a land
flowing milk and honey" [6:8].
[10b] Blessed be our Lord, brethren, who has placed in
us wisdom and understanding of his secrets.
For the prophet says:
Who can understand a parable of the Lord, except
he who is wise and understanding, and who loves his Lord?
 Since, then, he renovated us by the forgiveness of sins , he made us to be another sort (of creation), as though
we had a child's soul [cf. 3:6] -- he fashioned us again [cf. 6:9b],
as it were.  For the scripture is speaking about us when he
says to the Son [5:5]:
Let us make man in accord with our image and likeness, and
let them rule over the beasts of the earth and the birds of
heaven and the fish of the sea [Gen. 1:26].
[12b] And when he saw how well we were formed [6:9b], the
Increase and multiply and fill the earth [Gen. 1:28].
These things (he said) to the Son.
 Again, I will show you how he says to us that he
made a second fashioning in the last times. [13b] And the Lord
Behold, I make the last things like the first.
[13c] It is for this reason, therefore, that the prophet
proclaimed: "Enter into the land flowing milk and honey, and exercise
lordship over it" [see 6:8].  See, then, we have been
fashioned anew! [14b] As he says again in another prophet:
Behold, says the Lord, I will remove from them -
that is, from those on whom he foresaw the Lord's spirit --
their stony hearts, and I will insert fleshly hearts.
[14c] Because he was about to be manifested in flesh
[5:1] and to dwell in us.  For, my brethren, our heart
being thus inhabited constitutes a holy Temple to the Lord!
[16:6-10]  for the Lord says again:
And in what manner shall I appear before the Lord my God
and be glorified? [See Ps. 42:2b]
[16b] He says:
I will confess you in the assembly of my brethren,
[16c] Therefore we are those whom he conducts into the good
and I will praise you in the midst of the assembly of saints
 What, then, is the "milk and honey"? Because the infant
is initiated into life first by honey, then by milk. [17b] Thus
also, in a similar way, when we have been initiated into life by faith
in the promise [6:8, 14:1b] and by the word, we will live exercising
lordship over the land.  But as it was already said above
[see 6:12] : "And they shall increase, and multiply, and rule over
the fish...." [18b] Who, then, is presently able to rule over
beasts or fish or birds of heaven? [Cf. 10:3-5, 10] For we ought to
understand that "to rule" implies that one is in control [see 2:1],
so that he who gives the orders exercises dominion.  If,
then, this is not the present situation, he has told us when it
will be -- when we ourselves have been perfected as heirs of the
Lord's covenant [14:5].
Transition back to the main theme of suffering (7:1-2)
[7:1] Understand, therefore, children of joy, that the good
Lord revealed everything to us beforehand so that we might know
whom we ought to praise continually with thanksgiving.
 If, then, the Son of God, who is Lord and is about to
judge the living and dead, suffered so that his being afflicted [5:2,
12b] might bring us life [12:5], let us believe that it was not
possible for the Son of God to suffer except on our behalf.
Lessons from the Atonement ritual: the Fast and the scapegoat
 But he also drank vinegar and gall [see Ps. 69:21] when he
was crucified. [3b] Hear how the priests of the Temple
made even this clear, when the commandment was written:
Whoever does not fast during the (Atonement) Fast must
surely die [see Lev. 23:29].
[3c] The Lord gave such a commandment since he was destined
to offer the vessel of the spirit as a sacrifice for our
sins, so that the "type" which is based on Isaac's having
been offered up on the altar [Gen. 22:9] also might be fulfilled.
 What, then, does he say in the prophet?
And they shall eat from the goat which is offered up during the
Fast for all sins [cf. Lev. 16:9, 27] -
pay attention more diligently --
and the priests alone shall all eat the entrails unwashed, with
 For what reason?
Since I am destined to offer my flesh [5:1] for the sins of my
new people, you (priests) are about to drink gall mixed
with vinegar -- you alone will eat while the people fast and smite
themselves on sackcloth and ashes.
This is to demonstrate that he must suffer at their hands
[5:11 ff.; 12:5].
 Pay attention to what he commanded:
Take two goats which are handsome and alike, and present
them; and let the priest take one for a burnt offering for
sins [Lev. 16:7, 9].
 But what do they do with the other?
Accursed, he says, is the other [see Lev. 16:8].
[7b] Pay attention to how the type of Jesus is
 And you shall all spit on and prick (that goat), and encircle
its head with scarlet wool, and thus let it be cast out into
the desert [see Lev. 16:10].
[8b] And when this has been done, the one who bears the goat
brings (it) into the desert and takes the wool and places it
upon a bush which is called raché, the buds of which
we are accustomed to eat when we find them in the countryside. Thus
of the raché alone are the fruits sweet.
 What, then, does it mean -- pay attention -- that the
one is placed on the altar [7:6] and the other is accursed [7:7a],
and that the accursed one is crowned? [7:8a] [9b] Because they
will see him then, on that day, wearing the scarlet robe around
his flesh [5:1], and they will say:
Is not this he whom we once crucified, despising and piercing
and spitting on him? [7:8a] Surely this was the one who then
said he was God's Son! [See Mark 15:39b, parr.]
 Now how is this like that situation? For this reason the
goats were alike and handsome [7:6], equal, so that when they see it
coming then [7:8b, 9b], they will be amazed at the similarity of
the goat. [10b] Therefore notice here the type of
Jesus who was destined to suffer.
 And what does it mean that they place the wool in the
midst of the thorns? [7:8b] It is a type of Jesus placed in the
church, so that whoever desires to snatch away the scarlet wool
must suffer many things because the thornbush is treacherous,
and he must obtain it through affliction.
[11b] In such a way, he says, those who desire to see me and
to take hold of my kingdom [8:5] ought to take me through
affliction and suffering [see Acts 14:22].
Lessons from the red heifer ritual (8:1-7) [see Num. 19:1-10]
[8:1] And what do you suppose is the type involved here,
in that he commanded to Israel that those men in whom sins are
complete should offer a heifer; and when they had slaughtered it,
to burn it; and then the children should take the ashes and put
them into a container; and the scarlet wool should be wrapped
around a piece of wood -- again, note the type of the cross [see 12:1-7], and the scarlet wool [7:8-11] and the hyssop; and thus the
children sprinkle the people individually in order to purify them
from sins? [5:1]  Understand how it is told to you in
such simplicity: the calf is Jesus; the sinful men who offer it are
those who offered him to be slaughtered[5:2]. Then men (appear)
no longer, (it is) no longer (concerned with) the "glory" of sinners!
[Cf. 5:11]  Those who sprinkle are children [cf. 6:11], they
are those who preach to us forgiveness of sins and purification of
the heart, to whom he entrusted the authority to proclaim the gospel
[5:9]. [3b] There are twelve (of the latter), for a witness to
the tribes, since there are twelve tribes of Israel.  But
why are there (only) three children who sprinkle? This is for a
witness to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, because they are great before
 And the fact that the wool is on the wood [8:1] signifies
that the kingdom of Jesus [7:11b] is on the wood, and that those who
hope on him will live forever [6:3a].  But why are the wool
and the hyssop together? Because in his kingdom there shall be
wicked and vile days, in which we shall be saved. For the
one whose flesh is distressed is cured by means of the hyssop's
 Wherefore, the things which have come to pass [1:7] are
clear to us, but hidden to them, because they did not hearken to the Lord's voice.
IV. Concerning circumcised understanding (9:1-10:12)
Exhortations to "hear" (9:1-4a)
For again, he speaks concerning the ears, how he circumcised
the ears of our heart. The Lord says in the prophet:
By listening with the ear, they hearkened to me [Ps. 18:44a].
[1c] And again he says:
By hearing, those who are far off shall hearken;
 And again he says:
The things I have done will become known [Isa. 33:13].
And circumcise, says the Lord, your hearts
[cf. Deut. 10:16; Jer.4:4].
Hear, Israel, for thus says the Lord your God [see OT
 And again he says:
Who is he who desires to live forever? [See Ps. 34:12a]
By hearing, let him hearken to the voice of my servant
[see Isa. 50: 10a].
Hear, heaven, and give ear, earth; for the Lord has spoken [Isa. 1:2a] --
these are mentioned as a witness [cf. Deut. 4:26].
[3b] And again he says:
Hear the Lord's word, rulers of this people [Isa. 28:14; 1:10].
[3c] And again he says:
Hear, children, a voice crying in the desert [Isa. 40:3].
[3d] Therefore he circumcised our ears, so that when we hear the word, we might believe.
False and true circumcision (9:4b-5)
 But he also set aside [2:6; 16:2] the circumcision on
which they relied. [4b] For he said that circumcision was not a
matter of the flesh, but they became transgressors [5:11] because a
wicked angel [18:1] "enlightened" them.
 And he says to them:
Thus says the Lord your God --
here I find a commandment --
Woe to those who sow among thorns;
[5b] And what is he saying?
Be circumcised to your Lord [Jer. 4:3-4].
Circumcise the wickedness from your heart!
[5c] And again he says:
Behold, the Lord says, all the nations have uncircumcised
but this people is uncircumcised in heart! [See Jer. 9:26]
The meaning of Abraham's circumcision (9:6-9)
 But you will say: And yet the people received circumcision
as a special sign [Gen. 17:11]. But every Syrian and Arab, and
all the priests of the idols also (are circumcised). Are they also,
then, from their covenant? But even the Egyptians are in
circumcision! [See Jer. 9:25 f.]
 Learn, then, abundantly concerning everything,
children of love [7:1; 21:9]; for when Abraham first gave
circumcision, he circumcised while looking forward in the spirit
to Jesus, and he received the teachings of the three
letters.  For it says:
And Abraham circumcised the men of his household [Gen. 17:23], 18 and 300 (in number) [Gen. 14:14].
[8b] What, then, is the gnosis which was given him?
(See 19:1c) Learn! [9:7] For a distinction is made in that the 18
comes first, then it says 300. Now the (number) 18 (is represented
by two letters), J = 10 and E = 8 -- thus you have "JE," (the
abbreviation for) "JEsus." " And because the cross, represented by
the letter T (= 300), was destined to convey special significance , it also says 300. He makes clear, then, that
JEsus is symbolized by the two letters (JE = 18), while in the
one letter (T = 300) is symbolized the cross.
 He who placed the implanted gift of his teaching in us
knows! No one has learned From me a more trustworthy lesson!
But I know that you are worthy [cf. 14:1b,4a].
The intention of Mosaic food restrictions (10:1-2)
[10:1] Now when Moses said:
Eat neither pig [10:3], nor eagle nor hawk nor crow
[10:4], nor any fish which is without scales [10:5; see
Lev. 11:7-15; Deut. 14:8-14],
he received in his understanding three doctrines.  Further, he says to them in Deuteronomy:
And I will ordain as a covenant [14:5b] for this people my righteous ordinances.
[2b] Therefore it is not God's commandment that they
(literally) should not eat, but Moses spoke in the spirit.
The three doctrines of Moses (10:3-5) [tradition 1, see 10:1]
 For this reason, then, he mentions the "pig": Do not
associate, he is saying, with such men -- men who are like pigs. That
is, men who forget their Lord when they are well off, but when they
are in need, they acknowledge the Lord; [3b] just as when the
pig is feeding it ignores its keeper, but when it is hungry it makes a
din, and after it partakes it is quiet again [10:10c].
 "Neither eat the eagle nor the hawk nor the kite nor the
crow." Do not, he is saying, associate with nor be like such men --
men who do not know how to procure their own food by honest
labor and sweat, but in their lawlessness they plunder the
possessions of others, and they keep sharp watch as they walk around
in apparent innocence, and spy out whom they might despoil by
plundering; [4b] just as those birds are unique in not procuring
their own food, but as they perch idly by, they seek how they
might devour the flesh of others-pestilent creatures in their
wickedness! [10: 10d]
 "And do not eat," he says, "sea eel nor octopus nor
cuttlefish." Do not, he is saying, be like such men -- men who are
completely impious and have already been condemned to death [see
11:7*]; [5b] just as those fish are uniquely cursed and loiter
in the depths, not swimming about as do the rest but inhabiting the
murky region beneath the deep water [10:10b].
The three doctrines on sexual sins (10:6-8) [tradition 2]
 But neither shall you eat the hairy-footed animal [Lev.
11:5; Deut. 14:7]. Why not? Do not be, he is saying, one who corrupts
children, nor be like such people; [6b] because the hare
increases unduly its discharge each year, and thus has as many holes as
it is years old.
 But neither shall you eat the hyena [cf. Jer. 12:9
LXX/OG]. Do not, he is saying, be an adulterer nor a corrupter, nor be
like such people. [7b] Why? Because this animal changes its
nature each year, and at one time it is male while at another it is female.
 But also he hated the weasel [see Lev. 11:29], fittingly.
Do not, he is saying, be such a person. We hear of such men, who
perform a lawless deed uncleanly with the mouth. Neither
associate with those unclean women who perform the lawless deed
with the mouth. [8b] For this animal conceives through its mouth.
Summary and support from David (10:9-10d)
 Concerning foods, then, when Moses received the three
doctrines [10:1] he spoke out thus, in the spirit [10:2b]. But because
of fleshly desires they accepted his words as though they
concerned actual food [10:2b; cf. 9:4b].
 And David also received gnosis of the same three
doctrines [10:1] -- and he says [Ps. 1:1]:
[10b] Blessed is the man who has not walked according to
the counsel of impious men -
just as the fish which grope in darkness in the depths [10:5b] --
[10c] nor stood in the way of sinners --
just as those who appear to fear the Lord sin like the pig [10:3] --
[10d] nor sat in the seat of pestilent fellows --
just like the birds perched for plundering [10:4b].
Moses' positive food laws, conclusion (10:10e-12)
[10e] Now receive complete (understanding) concerning food.
 Moses says again:
Eat every split-hooved and cud-chewing animal [Lev. 11:3;
[11b] What is he saying (about the latter)? That
(the animal)which receives fodder knows who feeds it, and
while it relies on him, it seems content [cf. 10:3, 10c]. He spoke fittingly in view of the commandment. [11c] What, then is he saying? Associate
with those who fear the Lord, with those who meditate in
their heart on the subtleties of the matter, with those who
proclaim the Lord's righteous ordinances and keep them,
with those who realize that study is a joyful occupation,
and who "ruminate" on the Lord's word. [11d] And
what does the "split-hooved" mean? That the righteous man
both walks in this world and anticipates the holy aeon.
[11e] See how appropriately Moses legislated!
 But how could they perceive or understand these
things? [See 9:4b] But since we rightly understand the
commandments , we are speaking as the Lord desired.
[12b] This is why he circumcised our ears and hearts
[9:1, 4a], so that we might understand these things.
V. Baptism and the cross foreshadowed (11:1-12:11)
Transition to the new section (11:1a)
[11:1] But let us investigate whether the Lord was
concerned to reveal beforehand concerning the water and
concerning the cross.
Concerning the water (11:1b-5)
[1b] First, concerning the water, it is written with reference
to Israel how they never will accept the baptism which conveys
forgiveness of sins, but they will build (cisterns) for themselves.
 For the prophet says:
Be astounded, Heaven, and shudder greatly at this, Earth,
 And again the prophet says:
For this people has committed two wicked acts --
They have forsaken me, the living fount [see 1:3] of water,
And they have dug out for themselves a pit of death [Jer. 2:12-13].
 Has my holy mount Sinai become an arid rock?
For you shall be as the fledglings of a bird,
fluttering about when they are taken from the nest [Isa. 16:1b-2].
I will go before you, and I will level mountains
and shatter gates of brass and break iron bars,
And I will give you treasures -- dark, hidden, unseen --
that they might know that I am the Lord God [Isa. 45:2-3a].
 And you will dwell in an elevated cave made from solid rock,
and its water supply is dependable.
You will see a king in his glory,
and your soul will meditate on the fear of the Lord.
Concerning water and wood together (11:6-11)
 And again he says in another prophet:
And he who does these things will be like the tree planted by
 Perceive how he referred to the water and the cross
springs of waters,
which produces its fruit at the proper time,
and which has leaves that will not wither;
And everything he does will prosper.
 The impious are not like this -- not in the least.
But rather, they are like the dust which the wind drives from
the face of the earth.
For this reason, the impious will not appear for judgment
nor sinners in the council of the Righteous.
For the Lord knows the Way of the Righteous,
and the Way of the Impious will perish [Ps. 1:3-6].
[8b] For this is what he is saying: "Blessed" [Ps. 1:1] are
those who, having placed their hope in the cross [12:3], descend into
the water. [8c] For the reward, he says, comes "at the proper
time" [11:6] -- then, he says, I will repay. [8d] But as for the
present, what does he say? "The leaves will not wither" [11:6]. He is
saying this, that every word which flows forth from you -- through
your mouth [see 16:9] -- in faith and love, will be a
means of conversion and hope to many.
 And again, another prophet says:
And the Land of Jacob was praised more than any land -
he is saying this, he glorifies the vessel of his spirit.
 Then what does he say?
And there was a river flowing from the right side,
 He is saying this, that we go down into the water full of
sins and vileness, and we come up bearing fruit in our heart, having
in the spirit fear and hope in Jesus. [11b] "And whoever
eats from these will live forever" [11:10]. He is saying this:
Whoever, he says, hears these things which are spoken and believes
will live forever [cf. 6:3a].
and beautiful trees came up out of it.
And whoever eats of them will live forever.
Concerning the cross (12:1-7)
[12:1] Similarly, he explains again concerning the cross in
another prophet who says:
And when will these things come to pass, says the Lord?
[1b] Again, you have (information) concerning the cross and the
one who was destined to be crucified [cf. 12:2a, 7d].
When a tree falls down and rises up,
and when blood drips from a tree.
 And again he says in the (book of) Moses, when Israel was
under attack from foreigners -- and so that he might remind those
who were being attacked that they had been given over to death
because of their sins [see 12:5b] -- the spirit says to Moses,
in his heart, that he should make a type of the cross and
of him who was destined to suffer [6:7; 12:1b]. [2b] If they do
not, he is saying, place their hope on him, they will be under
attack forever. [2c] Thus Moses piled one shield upon another in
the midst of the battle, and as he stood elevated above them all
he stretched out his hands. And as long as he did so, Israel again
prevailed; but whenever he let (his hands) drop, they were again
being killed [Exod. 17:8-15].  Why? So that they might know that they could not be saved unless they hope on him.
 And again, in another prophet he says:
The whole day I have stretched out my hands to a people
who are disobedient and who oppose my Righteous Way
[Isa. 65:2; see Rom. 10:21].
 Again, Moses makes a type of Jesus -- (signifying)
that it was necessary for him to suffer [5:13a; 7:5] and that he
whom they supposed had perished [see 7:9b] would bestow life
[7:2; 12:7b] -- in the standard (set up) when Israel was smitten
(by a plague). [5b] For the Lord made every serpent to bite,
them and they were dying, so that he might demonstrate to them that
it was because of their transgression -- since transgression took root
in Eve because of the serpent [Gen. 3:1 ff.] -- that they will be
given over to mortal affliction [12:2a].
 Furthermore, it is this same Moses who commanded,
You shall have neither a cast-metal nor a carved image to
your God [see Lev. 26:1; Deut. 27:15] -
he it is who makes (such an image) in order to provide a type of
[6b] Moses, then, makes a bronze serpent and sets it up in a
prominent place and calls the people together by means of a
proclamation.  Therefore, when they came together they begged
Moses to offer a prayer on their behalf, that they might be healed.
[7b] But Moses said to them:
Whenever, he says, anyone is bitten, let him come to the serpent
which is erected on the wooden pole. And let him hope, believing
that this dead object is able to bestow life [12:5a],
and he will be healed immediately [12:3].
[7c] And they did so [Num. 21:6-9].
[7d] Again, you have also in these things the glory of Jesus
[cf. 12:1b] -- for all things take place in him and for his sake [cf.
Whose Son is "Jesus"? (12:8-11)
 Again, what does Moses say to "Jesus" son of Naue, when he
had given this name to him [Num. 13:8, 16] who was a prophet
[Sirach 46: 1; cf. Deut. 18:15] so that all the people might hearken
things clear concerning his Son "Jesus."  Thus Moses
says to "Jesus" son of Naue, to whom he had given this name when
he sent him to spy out the land:
Take a book in your hands and write what the Lord says, that
"Jesus" the Son of God will cut off the entire house of Amalek
##by its roots at the end of days [see Exod. 17:14].
 Again, notice "Jesus" -- not the son of a man but
the Son of God, and manifested in flesh by a type.
[10b] Since, then, they were going to say that Messiah is
David's Son, David himself -- fearing and perceiving the error
of the sinners [8:1] -- prophesies:
The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand
 And again, Isaiah says as follows:
until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet" [Ps. 110:1].
The Lord said to my Messiah, the Lord, whose right hand I held,
[11b] Notice how David says he is "Lord," and does not
that nations would become obedient to him,
and "I will demolish the strength of kings" [Isa. 45:1].
VI. The covenant and its recipients (13:1-14:9)
Transition to the new section (13:1)
13 But let us see if this people is the heir [13:6;
14:4 f.] or the former people, and if the covenant is for us or for
The "Two People" (13:2-14:1a)
 Therefore, hear what the scripture says concerning
And Isaac was making entreaty for Rebecca his wife, because
she was barren. And she became pregnant. Then Rebecca also
went to inquire of the Lord, and the Lord said to her [see Gen. 25:21 f.]:
 You ought to perceive who Isaac (represents) and
who Rebecca, and with reference to whom he had pointed out that "this people" is "greater" than "that."
Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples in your belly. [Gen. 25:23].
And one of the people will dominate the other,
and the greater will be subject to the lesser
 And in another prophecy Jacob says it even more clearly to his son Joseph, when he says:
Behold, the Lord has not (yet) deprived me of your presence.
Bring your sons to me, so that I might bless them [Gen. 48: 11, 9b].
 And he brought Ephraim and Manasse near, intending that
Manasse should receive the blessing since he was older -- thus
Joseph brought (the latter) to his father Jacob's right hand [Gen.
48:13]. [5b] But Jacob saw, in the spirit, a type of
"the people" which was to come afterward. [5c] And what does it
And Jacob crossed his hands and placed his right hand on the<
head of Ephraim, the second and younger (son), and blessed
him [Gen. 48:14-15a]. And Joseph said to Jacob: "You should
transpose your right hand to Manasse's head, for he is my
firstborn son." And Jacob said to Joseph: "I know, child, I know,
but the greater will be subject to the lesser" [see 13:2b].
And thus (Ephraim) received the blessing [Gen. 48:18-20].
 Take note on which of them he placed (his right hand) --
this "people" is to be first, and heir of the covenant! [13:1]
 Was, then, this situation also in view in the case of
Abraham? We are receiving the perfection of our gnosis! [7b] What, then, does he say to Abraham when for his
belief alone he was established in righteousness? [see Gen. 15:6]
Behold, I have established you, Abraham, as the father of
nations which believe in God while uncircumcised [see Gen.
17:4-5; Rom. 4:11].
[14:1] Indeed, it was!
The Covenant given and received (14:1b-9)
[1b] But let us see if he has given the covenant
which he promised the fathers [5:7] he would give to "the people."
[1c] He has given it, but they were not worthy to receive it
because of their sins [14:5]. For the prophet
And Moses was fasting on Mount Sinai, when he was to receive
the Lord's covenant with the people, for forty days
and forty nights. And Moses received from the Lord
the two tablets inscribed by the finger of the Lord's hand, in
the spirit. And when Moses received (them), he brought (them) down
to give to the people.  And the Lord said to
 Moses, then, received (it), but they did not prove worthy.
Moses, Moses, descend immediately, because your people
which you led out from the land of Egypt has sinned.
And Moses understood, for they had again made
molten images for themselves, and he hurled the tablets from
(his) hands, and the tablets of the Lord's covenant were
shattered [see 4:7-8].
[4b] And how did we receive it? Learn! Moses
received it in the capacity of servant [see Exod. 14:31; Heb. 3:5];
but the Lord himself gave it to us, to a "people" of inheritance, by
submitting for us [5:1].  And he was made manifest
so that they might fill up the measure of their sins [5:11], and we
might receive it through Jesus, who inherits the Lord's covenant --
[5b] he was prepared for this reason, that by appearing himself
and liberating from darkness our hearts which had already been paid
over to death and given over to the lawlessness of error [16:7b],
he might establish a covenant in us by a word.  For it is
written how the Father commanded him to prepare a holy
people for himself [5:7] when he had liberated us from the
darkness.  Therefore the prophet says:
I, the Lord your God, have called you in righteousness,
[7b] Know, then, whence we were liberated!  Again
the prophet says:
and I will grasp your hand and empower you;
And I have given you as a covenant to people, as a light for the
to open the eyes of the blind,
and to release from their bonds those who have been shackled,
and to lead out from their prison house those sitting in darkness
Behold, I have placed you as a light for the nations,
 Again the prophet says:
that you might beam salvation to the end of the earth.
Thus says the Lord God who liberated you [Isa. 49:6-7].
The Lord's spirit is on me,
wherefore he anointed me to announce benefaction to the oppressed,
he sent me to heal those who are broken hearted,
to proclaim pardon to the captives and restoration of sight
to the blind,
to announce the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day
of recompense [see 21:1],
to comfort all those who are in mourning [Isa. 61:1-2].
VII. Concerning the Sabbath (15:1-9)
[15:1] And furthermore, concerning the sabbath. It is written in
the "Ten Words" by which (the Lord) spoke to Moses face to face
[see Exod. 33:11; Deut. 5:4; 34:10] on Mount Sinai:
And you shall keep the Lord's sabbath holy [see Exod. 20:8;
Deut. 5: 12; Jer. 17:22]
 And elsewhere he says:
with clean hands and a clean heart [see Ps. 24:4; 51:10].
If my sons guard the sabbath [see Exod. 31:16],
then I will bestow my mercy on them [see Isa. 56:1-8].
 He mentions "the sabbath" at the beginning of creation:
And God made the works of his hands in six days,
and he finished on the seventh day.
And he rested on it, and kept it holy [see Gen. 2:2-3].
 Pay attention, children, to what he says: "He
finished in six days." He is saying this, that in six thousand years
the Lord will finish everything. For with him the "day" signifies a
thousand years. [4b] And he bears me witness (on this point)
Behold, a day of the Lord shall be as a thousand years [cf. Ps. 90:4].
[4c] Therefore, children, "in six days" -- in six thousand years
-- "everything" will be "finished."
 "And he rested on the seventh day" [15:3b]. He is saying
this: When his Son comes he will put an end to the time
of the Lawless One, and judge the impious [cf. 10:5; 11:7], and
change the sun [5:10] and moon and stars -- then he will
truly rest "on the seventh day."
 Furthermore he says: "Keep it holy with clean hands and a
clean heart" [15:1b]. [6b] If, then, anyone at present is able,
by being clean in heart, to keep holy the day which God hallowed,
we have been deceived in everything! [Cf. 9:4b; 16:1]  But if
he keeps it holy at that time by truly resting [15:5b], when we
ourselves are able (to do so) since we have been made righteous
[cf. 4:10] and have received the promise [6:19] -- when lawlessness
is no more and all things have been made new by the Lord
[6:13; 15:5] -- at that time we will be able to keep it holy, when
we ourselves first have been made holy!
 Further, he says to them [see 2:5b]:
I cannot bear your new moon celebrations and sabbaths
[8b] See how he is saying that it is not your present
sabbaths that are acceptable to me, but that (sabbath) which I
have made, in which, when I have rested everything, I will make
the beginning of an eighth day -- that is, the beginning of another
world [see 6:13; 16:6c].  Wherefore also we observe the
eighth day as a time of rejoicing, for on it Jesus both arose from
the dead and, when he had appeared, ascended into the heavens.
VIII. Concerning the Temple (16:1-10)
The old, physical Temple (16:1-5)
16 And finally, concerning the Temple. I will show you how
those wretched men, when they went astray, placed their
hope on the building and not on their God who created
them -- as though God has a house!  For, roughly
speaking, they consecrated him by means of the Temple, as the pagans
do! [2b] But how does the Lord speak when he sets it aside?
[2:6; 9:4b] Learn!
Who measured the heaven with a span, or the earth with a hand?
[2c] You knew that their hope [16:1] was vain!
Was it not I, says the Lord? [Isa. 40:12]
The heaven is my throne, and the earth is the stool for my feet.
What sort of house will you erect for me,
or what place for me to rest? [Isa. 66:1; see Acts 7:49]
 Furthermore, he says again:
Behold, those who tore down this Temple will themselves build it.
 It is happening. For because of their fighting it was torn
down by the enemies. And now the very servants of the enemies will
themselves rebuild it.
 Again, it was made clear that the city and the
Temple and the people of Israel were destined to be abandoned.
[5b] For the scripture says [cf. 5:12b]:
And it shall be at the end of days that the Lord will abandon the
sheep of the pasture, and the sheepfold, and their watchtower
[5c] And it happened just as the Lord announced!
The new, spiritual Temple (16:6-10)
 But let us inquire whether there is a Temple of
God? There is, where he himself says he makes and prepares (it)!
[6b] For it is written:
And it shall come to pass when the "hebdomad" is finished,
God's Temple will be built gloriously in the Lord's Name.
 Thus I find that there is a Temple.
[7b] How, then, will it "be built in the Lord's Name"? Learn! Before we believed in God the dwelling place
of our heart was corrupt and infirm -- truly a Temple built by
human hands [see 2:6, Acts 7:48]. For it was full of idolatry, and
was a house of demons, through doing whatever things were
contrary to God.  But "it will be built in the Lord's Name" -
- pay attention -- so that the Temple of the Lord may be "built
gloriously." [8b] How? Learn! When we receive the
forgiveness of sins and place our hope on the Name, we
become new, created again from the beginning. Wherefore
God truly dwells in our "dwelling place" -- in us [6:15].  In
what way? The word of his faith, the invitation of his promise,
the wisdom of his righteous ordinances, the commandments of his
teaching [18:1a]; himself prophesying in us, himself dwelling in us
-- by opening for us the door of the Temple, which is the mouth,
and giving us repentance, he leads those who had been in bondage to
death [14:5]into the incorruptible Temple.  For he
who longs to be saved looks not to the (external) man, but to
him who dwells in him and speaks in him, and he is amazed at the
fact that he never either had heard him speak such words from his
mouth nor had himself ever desired to hear (them)! [10b] This
is a pneumatic Temple built for the Lord!
[17:1] To the best of my ability, and in simplicity, (I have
tried) to make (these things) clear to you -- I hope that I have
not neglected anything (vital).  For if I keep writing to you
concerning things present or to come [1:5; 5:3], you would never
comprehend because they are contained in parables . [2b] So much, on the one hand, for these matters.
The Two Ways (Barn. 18:1-21:9; Did. 1:1-6:2)
Introduction (Barn. 18:1-2; Did. 1:1a-1b)
But let us move on to another gnosis and teaching.
There are two ways of teaching and authority:
that of light and that of darkness.
And there is a great difference
between the two ways.
For over one are appointed light-bearing angels of God,
but over the other, angels of Satan
 And the former is Lord from everlasting to everlasting,
but the latter is ruler of the present time of lawlessness.
I. The way of light/life (Barn. 19:1-12; Did. 1:1c-4:14)
Therefore, the Way of Light is this --
if anyone who desires to traverse the way
to the appointed place is diligent in his works.
Therefore, the gnosis which is granted to us to
walk in it is of this sort [see 9:8b]:
 You shall love him who made you;
fear him who formed you;
glorify him who redeemed you from death.
Be upright in heart [see Ps. 36:10] and rich in spirit [cf. Matt. 5:3!].
Do not associate with those who are proceeding in the way of death.
Hate everything that is not pleasing to God.
Hate all hypocrisy.
Do not forsake the Lord's commandments.
Do not exalt yourself, but always be humble-minded.
[3b] Do not allow yourself to become arrogant.
Do not take glory on yourself.
Do not plot wickedly against your neighbor.
 Do not be sexually promiscuous.
Do not commit adultery.
Do not be sexually perverted. [see above]
Let not the word of God depart from you with any sort of impurity [see 19:8c].
Do not show partiality in reproving anyone for transgressions.
Be meek, be quiet,
be one who fears the words which you have heard.
Do not take the Lord's name in vain.
Do not bear a grudge against your brother.
 Do not be undecided as to whether or not a thing
shall come to pass.
Love your neighbor more than yourself.
Do not murder a child by abortion,
nor, again, destroy that which is born.
Do not remove your control from your son or your daughter,
but from youth up, teach the fear of the Lord.
 Be not desirous of the things of your neighbor.
Be not greedy, [=19:3a-b|]
neither be yoked from your soul with the haughty;
but associate with the righteous and lowly.
Whatever befalls you, receive these experiences as good,
knowing that nothing happens without God.
 Be not double-minded nor double-tongued
for the double tongue is a snare of death.
Be subject to those over you as though to God, in reverence and fear.
Do not give an angry command to your slave or
maidservant, who trust in the same God,
lest they fear not the God who is over you both;
Because he came not to call men according to status,
but to call those in whom he prepared the spirit.
 Share all things with your neighbor
and do not claim that anything is exclusively yours;
For if you are sharers in that which is imperishable,
how much more so in what is perishable.
Be not overtalkative, for the mouth is death's snare
To the extent of your ability, be pure for your soul's sake [see 19:4b|].
 Do not be one who stretches out his hands to receive
but who holds them back when it comes to giving.
Love as the apple of your eye all who proclaim the Lord's word to you.
 Remember the day of judgment night and day,
and pursue (the quest) each day
either by the word, by toiling and traveling in order to admonish
and by taking pains to save a soul by the word,
or by your hands, by working to provide a ransom for your sins.
 Do not hesitate to give nor grumble when you give,
for you know who is the good paymaster of the reward.
Guard what you received, neither adding nor subtracting anything.
Hate evil completely.
 Do not cause divisions, but make peace with disputants
by bringing them together.
Make confession for your sins.
Do not go to prayer with an evil conscience.
This is the Way of Light.
II. The way of darkness/death (Barn. 20: 1-2; Did. 5: 1-2)
But the Way of the Black One is crooked and full of
cursing.For it is entirely a way of eternal death with punishment, which
lie the things which destroy men's souls --
idolatry, arrogance, pride in power,
hypocrisy, duplicity, adultery, murder,
robbery, conceit, transgression,
guile, malice, stubbornness,
sorcery, magic, greediness.
Without fear of God,
 persecutors of the good;
Hating truth, loving a lie;
Not knowing the reward of righteousness,
not associating with what is good;
Not judging justly,
not guarding the rights of the widow and orphan;
Being alert not with respect to the fear of God,
but to that which is wicked --
from whom courtesy and patience are far off and distant;
Loving what is worthless,
Not showing mercy toward the poor,
not laboring on behalf of the downtrodden;
Reckless with slanderous speech,
not knowing him who made them;
Murderers of children, corrupters of God's creation;
Turning away from the needy,
afflicting the oppressed;
Advocates of the rich,
lawless judges of the poor --
sinful through and through! [cf. 21:9b]
Conclusion to The Two Ways of Barnabas (21:1-9)
Therefore it is fitting that when one has learned the
ordinances of the Lord--as many as have been written--
he walks in them.
For he who does these things will be glorified in God's kingdom;
he who chooses those will perish with his works.
For this reason there is resurrection,
for this reason there is recompense [see 5:7].
 1 urge those who are in a high position--if you accept any
of my well-intentioned advice--to make sure that there are
among you those to whom you may do that which is good. Do not fail in this.  The day is near in which all things
will perish together with the Wicked One. The Lord is
near, and his reward.
 Once more and again I urge you; be good lawgivers among
yourselves, persevere as faithful advisers to each other, remove
all hypocrisy [20:1c] from among you.  And the God who has
dominion over the whole universe will give you Wisdom,
Insight, Understanding, Gnosis of his ordinances, Endurance
6. Be taught by God [see 21.1a], seeking out what the Lord
seeks from you; and so act that you may find (what you seek)
in the day of judgment.  And if there is any
remembrance of what is good, remember me as you meditate
on these things, so that my earnest longing and my
sleeplessness might lead to some good result.
 I urge you, begging your favor, while the "good vessel"
is still with you do not fail in any respect, but continually seek out
these things and fulfill every commandment--for they are
worthy.  Wherefore, I hastened all the more to write whatever
I could [see 1:5; 17:1]. [9b] May you be saved, children of love
and peace. [9c] The Lord of glory and of all
grace be with your spirit.
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