Annals of Shalmaneser III

Years 17–18 (843–842, BC)

To Mount Amanus;
against Hazael of Syria

This translation is based on that of Daniel David Luckenbill in Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, pp. 200-252 (Chicago, 1926). My contribution has been to update the language and place names—Modern names have been used where possible. Please report errors to me (link at end of page). -Alan Humm

YEAR 17 (843, BC)

Inscriptions at the source of the Tigris

1. (KAH, II, # I07) I brought in subjection the land of Hatti to its farthest border, the land of Melidi, the lands of Daiani and Suhme, Arzashkun, the royal city of Arame of Armenia, the lands of Gilzanu and Hubushkia, from the source of the Tigris to the source of Euphrates, from Lake Urmia, to the Persian Gulf. I marched to Babylon, offered sacrifices there and went down to the land of Chaldea. I captured their cities and received their tribute. Hadad-ezer of Damascus, Irhulini of Hama, along with 15 coastal cities, advanced against me, I fought with them for the fourth time and brought about their overthrow. [I destroyed their chariots and cavalry, and appropriated their battle equipment. They fled for their lives.

3. <I am> conqueror [from Lake Van to the Mediterranean,] who brought into subjection the entire Hittite-land, Melidi, Daiani, Suhme, Arazashkun, the royal city of [Arame of Armenia, the land of Gilzani], the city of Hubushkia, and the land of Armenia: [from the source of Tigris to the source of the Euphrates, from Lake Urmia to the Persian Gulf. I marched to Babylon and offered sacrifices in Babylon, Borsippa and Kutha. I went down and attacked the land of Chaldea, capturing their cities, and receiving tribute from the kings who had fled from there. The terror of my armies overpowered them, as far [as the Persian Gulf]..

[Hadad-ezer], king of Damascus along with 12 kings of the Hittite-land [advanced against me]. I fought with them for the fourth time and brought about their overthrow. I confiscated their chariots, their cavalry, and their battle equipment; [they fled for their lives.]

The Black Obelisk inscription

(96–97) In my seventeenth year, I crossed the Euphrates and went up on Mount Amanus where I cut cedar timbers.

YEAR 18 (842, BC)

Fragments of the royal annals

B. FROM CALAH

(3. lines 41–52) In my eighteenth year, I crossed the Euphrates for the sixteenth time. Hazael of Damascus trusted in the masses of his troops. He mustered his troops in great numbers. He made Mount Saniru, a mountain peak which is in front of Mount Lebanon, into his fortress. I fought with him, defeated him, and killed 16,000 of his soldiers. I appropriated l,131 of his chariots, and 470 of his cavalry, together with his camp.

D. ANOTHER FRAGMENT FROM CALAH(?)

In my eighteenth year, I crossed the Euphrates for the sixteenth time. Hazael of Damascus trusting in the size of his army, mustered a force of significant size, and established his fortress in Mount Saniru, a mountain peak at the border of Lebanon. I met him in battled, and was able to overthrow him. I kiled 6,000 of his soldiers, and apprehended 1,121 of his chariots and 470 of his cavalry, along with his camp. He ran for his life up into the mountain. I followed after him and trapped him in Damascus; his royal city. I cut down his orchards, and advanced as far as Mount Hauran destroying, devastating, and setting fire to countless cities. I carried off a great amount of their spoil. I marched to Mount Ba’li-ra’si, a headland of the [Mediterranean], and set up my royal image there. At that time, I accepted the tribute from the men from Tyre, Sidon, and from Jehu, son of Omri.

The statue inscription

At that time I defeated Hadad-ezer of Damascus together with his 12 allied princes. I brought low like shubi 29,000 soldiers, his fighters. The rest of his armies I drove into the Orontes River. They went up into the mountain to save their lives. When Hadad-ezer died. Hazael, the son of a nobody, seized the throne, mustered his large army and came out against me, offering battle and fight. I battled with him, and defeated him. I seized the wall of his camp from him. He went up into the mountain to save his life. I advanced as far as Damascus, his royal city. ({left hip} [I cut down] his orchards……[for] Anu and Adad……pacification……I received…

The Black Obelisk inscription

(97–99) In my eighteenth year, I crossed the Euphrates for the sixteenth time. Hazael of Damascus came out in battle. I captured 1121 of his chariots and 470 of his cavalry from him, along with his camp.

RELIEFS & CAPTIONS

(relief band 2) I accepted tribute from Jehu, son of Omri silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden beaker, golden goblets, pitchers of gold, lead, staves for the hand of the king, and javelins

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