Annals of Shalmaneser III

Year 4 (856, BC)

Defeat & capture of Ahûni; against Zamua

This translation is based on that of Daniel David Luckenbill in Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, pp. 200-252 (Chicago, 1926). My contribution has been to update the language and place names—Modern names have been used where possible. Please report errors to me (link at end of page). -Alan Humm

The monolith inscription (Kurkh Stele)

(2.69–78) The next year, the year named after Assur­bânaia-usur, I pursued him. He had made Mount Shîtamrat, a mountain peak on the bank of the Euphrates, which is like a cloud hanging from the heavens, into his fortress. At the command of my lord Assur, the great lord, and Nergal, who goes before me, I approached Mount Shîtamrat, into which none of my ancestors, had come. In three days the hero conquered the mountain, his stout heart bent on battle,—on his own feet he climbed up, and overcame the mountain. Ahûni trusted in his widely spread army and came out against me. He drew up the battle line. I hurled the weapons of my lord Assur among them, bringing on their defeat. I cut off his soldier’s heads. I dyed the mountain with the blood of his soldiers. Large numbers of his men hurled themselves off the cliffs of the mountain. I fought a terrible battle in the middle of his city. The awe-inspiring splendor of my lord Assur overwhelmed them, they came down; they prostrated themselves at my feet. Ahûni with his armies, chariots, cavalry, and the lavish and immeasurable wealth of his palace, came before me. I had the booty taken across the Tigris, brought to my city Assur, and distributed it among the peoples of my land. In the same year I marched against the land of Mazamua, entered the pass into the land of Bunagish, and approached the cities of Nikdime and Nikdiera. They were afraid of my mighty, awe-inspiring weapons and my grim warfare, and tried to escape on the sea in wicker(?) boats. I followed after them in goat-skin boats, fought a great battle on the sea, and defeated them. I dyed the sea with their blood like wool.

Bronze Gates of Balâwât

SHEATHING

62l (3.5–6)The next year I went after him. I besieged the mountain peak. My soldiers pursued them like the divine Zu-bird. I carried off 17,500 of his soldiers. I took Ahûni, together with his armies, his gods, his chariots (and) his horses for myself, and I brought (them) to my city Assur, and counted them among the people of my land.

Fragments of the royal annals

B. FROM CALAH

(lines 60–66) In my fourth year, in the month ……I left from Nineveh, crossing the Euphrates at its flood, I pursued [Ahûni, son of Adini], to Shîtamrat, a mountain [peak on the bank of the Euphrates he made into his fortress.] I stormed [that mountain] peak, and captured it. I carried [Ahûni] off, [together with his gods, his chariots, his horses, his sons, his daughters, and his army, bringing them to my city Assur.]

[The same year] I left my city, crossed Mount Kullar, [and marched against Zamua. I captured the cities of Nikdime and Nikdiara]. His surviving troops [tried to escape by sea in wicker boats], I followed them, killed many of them in a sea [battle, and dyed the sea like wool with their blood].

C. ADDITIONAL FRAGMENTS FROM ASSUR

670 3. (KAH, II #115) [In the year named after Daian-Assur], I left from Nineveh, crossed the Euphrates at its flood, and pursued Ahûni, son of Adini. He made Mount Shîtamrat, by the bank of the Euphrates, [which hangs like a cloud] in the sky, into his fortress. I stormed and captured [the mountain peak] and carried off [Ahûni, with the cities, his chariots], his horses, [his sons, his daughters and his arms] and [brought them to Assyria].

The Black Obelisk inscription

(45–52) In the year named after Daian-Assur, I left from Nineveh, crossed the Euphrates at its flood, and pursued Ahûni, son of Adini. He made Shitamrat, a mountain peak on the bank of the Euphrates, his fortress. I stormed and captured the mountain peak. I carried off Ahûni, together with his gods, his chariots, his horses, his sons, his daughters, and his troops, and brought to my city, Assur. In that same year I crossed Mount Kullar and descended against Inner Zamua, I captured the cities of Nikdiara: the city of Ida and Nikdima.

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