Annals of Shalmaneser III

Year 1 (859, BC)

To the Mediterranean

This translation is based on that of Daniel David Luckenbill in Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, pp. 200-252 (Chicago, 1926). My contribution has been to update the language and place names—Modern names have been used where possible. Please report errors to me (link at end of page). -Alan Humm

The monolith inscription (Kurkh Stele)

(1.29–2.13) On the 13th of Airu, I left Nineveh, crossed the Tigris, and came through the lands of Hasamu and Dihnunu to the city of La’la’ti, ruled by Ahûni, son of Adini. Overwhelmed by the terrorizing fear of my lord Assur, they fled into the mountains. I destroyed, devastated and set fire to the city, left La’la’ti and came to Kika, Ahûni’s royal city. He trusted in the size of his army, and came out to fight me. But I trusted in Assur and my lords, the great gods, so I defeated him, trapping him in his city. Then I left and came to Burmar’ana, one of his cities, which I stormed and captured, killing 300 of their soldiers. I build a pyramid of their heads in front of the city. I accepted tribute from the Hapini the Til-abnite, from Ga’uni the Sallite, and from Giri-Adad the …ite—silver, gold, cattle sheep, and wine. Leaving Burnar’ana I crossed the Euphrates using goat-skin rafts. There I accepted tribute from Katazilu of Commagene—silver,gold, cattle, sheep, and wine. I approached Pakarruhbuni and Ahûni’s cities on the other side of the Euphrates. I overthrew the whole land turning his cities into ruins. I filled the wide plain with his fallen soldiers, killing 1,300 of them. I left Pakarruhbuni and arrived at the cities ruled by Mutalli the Gurgumean. Mutalli gave me silver, gold, cattle, wine, and his daughter (with her expensive dowry). So I left Gurgum and came against Lutibu, the royal city of Haianu the Sam’alite. Haianu, with Sapalulme the Hattinite, Ahûni son of Adini, and Sangara of Carchemish (they trusted in each other’s help), prepared for battle and came out to resist me. I fought and defeated them, using the mighty power of Nergal, who goes before me, and the terrible weapons which the lord Assur gave me, I killed their soldiers. Like Adad, I rained destruction upon them; and piled them up in the moat and filled the wide plain with the bodies of their soldiers. I dyed the mountains like red wool with their blood, and took many chariots and tamed horses. I build a pyramid of heads in front of his city, and destroyed, devastated, and set fire to his other cities.

At that time I humbly acknowledged the greatness of the great gods; and extolled the heroic might of Assur and Shamash for all time to come. Then I made a heroic image of my royal self, and inscribed my own heroic deeds and brave actions on it. I set it up at the sources of the Saluara River, which is at the foot of Mount Amanus. I left Mount Amanus and crossed the Orontes River coming to Alimush, the stronghold of Sapalulme the Hattinite. Sapalulme, to save his life, called on Ahûni, Sagara, and Haianu, as well as Kate the Kuean, Pihirisi the Hilukite, Buranate the Iasbukite, and Ada… Assur, (Col. II)… I shattered their forces. I stormed and captured the city.....I carried off . . . his many chariots, tamed horses, …… I killed….. In the middle of that battle, I captured Buranate. Next, I approached the fortress of the Hattineans in the area of the Upper Sea of Amurri, and the Mediterranean, and overthrew them so that they were like the ruins left by a flood. I accepted the tribute from the kings of the sea­coast. I marched along the shore of the wide sea, vindicated and triumphant and I made an image of my royal self, as witness of my name for all time to come, and set it up by the sea. Then I climbed Mount Amanus and cut timbers of cedar and cypress. I marched to the mountain of .... to Mount Atalur, where the image of Anhirbi had been set up, and erected my statue alongside of his. I went down to the sea where I captured the cities of Taiâ, Hazazu, Nulia, and Butâmu, which belonged to the Hattinean. I killed 2,800(?) of his soldiers, and captured another 14,600 of them as booty. I accepted the tribute from Ararne, son of Gûzi,—silver, gold, cattle, sheep, wine, and a couch of gold and silver.

Bronze Gates of Balâwât

BAND 3

(upper register) I received the tribute of ships from Tyre and Sidon.

(lower register) Attacked the city of Hazazu

SHEATHING

(2.3–5) On my march to the sea, I made a heroic image of my royal (self) and set it up beside the image of Anhirbe. I destroyed, devastated, and set fire to the cities along my path..... I marched to the Great Sea where I washed my weapons, offered sacrifices to my gods, and accepted the tribute from all the kings of the seacoast. I made a heroic image of my royal self, inscribed on it the mighty deeds which I had done by the shore, and set it up by the sea!

Fragments of the royal annals

A. FROM ASSUR

633 2. (KAH II #113.1 (obv.)) In the first year of my reign I crossed the Euphrates at its flood, and advanced to the [Mediterranean, of] the setting sun. I washed my weapons in the sea, and offered sacrifices to my gods. Next I climbed Mount Amanus. I cut logs of cedar and pine, then I climbed Mount Lallar, and set up my royal [image] there. I destroyed, devastated, and set fire to the cities of the Hattineans: those ruled by Ahûni, son of Adini, those of the people of Carchernish, and those of the people of Bargun, which are on the other side of the Euphrates.

The Black Obelisk inscription

(26–31) In my first year, I crossed the Euphrates at its flood; I advanced to the shore of the Mediterranean, where I washed my weapons in the sea and offered sacrifices to my gods. I climbed Mount Amanus and cut cedar and cypress timbers. I climbed Mount Lallar, and set up my royal image.

 Shalmeneser III  Index Return to Shalmeneser III Index
Page: © Copyright 1995-2011 Alan Humm.
Comments and corrections: