Annals of Shalmaneser III

Preamble:

Invocation of the gods, Titles and genealogy of the king

This translation is based on that of Daniel David Luckenbill in Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, pp. 200-252 (Chicago, 1926). My contribution has been to update the language and place names—Modern names have been used where possible. Please report errors to me (link at end of page). -Alan Humm

The monolith inscription (Kurkh Stele)

Assur, the great lord, king of all of the great gods; Anu, king of the Igigi and Anunnaki, the lord of the lands; Enlil, father of the gods, who decrees destiny, who establishes the bounds of heaven and earth; Ea, the wise, king of the Apsu, endowed with wisdom; the god Nanir, illuminator of heaven and earth; the hero god, Shamash, judge of the four regions of the world, who leads humanity in doing right; Ishtar, lady of conflict and battle, who delights in warfare, you great gods, who love my kingship, who have promoted my rule, power and authority, who have honored and dignified my name, far above all other lords!

Shalmaneser, king of all, prince, priest of Assur, mighty king, king of Assyria, king of all the four regions of the world, Sun of all peoples, ruler of all lands, king, sought out by the gods, favorite of Enlil, vigilant viceroy of Assur, honored prince who finds his way among the most difficult paths, who walks on the tops of mountains and highlands far and near, who receives the tribute and gifts of all regions, who opens up trails, north and south, who makes the regions of earth feel threatened at the prospect of fighting him, whose vigorous bravery shakes the lands to their foundations; mighty hero, who goes about, trusting in Assur and Shamash, his divine allies, who is without a rival among the princes of the four regions of earth; the king of lands, the heroic, who advances over difficult roads, traverses mountains and seas; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, whose priesthood pleased the gods, at whose feet all lands bowed in submission; glorious offspring of Tukulti-Urta, who killed all his enemies, and overwhelmed them like a flood.

When the great lord Assur, determined in his heart, and his holy eyes, to designate me, called me to rule over Assyria, gave to me the mighty weapon that casts down the rebellious, crowned me with a noble crown, the rule of all lands—to rule and forcefully subject the enemies of Assur, he sent me out.

Bronze Gates of Balâwât

SHEATHING

(1.1–2.3) Shalmaneser, the great and mighty king, king of the universe, king of [Assyria, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of the universe, king of Assyria, grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of] Assyria; the powerful hero who in the four regions of the world gives no quarter, who conquers rebellion, to whose hand all the regions of the earth are entrusted, who crushes those who do not submit to Assur; the mighty flood, in whose hands Assur has set the ends of the lands. King of the regions (of earth, who is covered) with splendor, who is fearless in battle, [under the yoke of whose dominion, mighty and ruthless kings, as far as the setting sun, have bowed ....... Shalmaneser, the rightful ruler, priest of Assur, the powerful.

Fragments of the royal annals

A. FROM ASSUR

1. (KAH II #112.obv.) [Shalmaneser, etc. ……… son of Assur-nâsir-pal), the exalted [priest], whose priesthood [was pleasing to the gods, and who brought all [lands] in submission to his feet]; illustrious offspring of Tukulti-Urta, who slew all his foes and [destroyed them like a hurricane.]

B. FROM CALAH

641 Shalrnaneser, king of all people, prince, etc. (The text continues in the words of the Monolith Inscription, § 596, with the following variants:) Shalrnaneser, king of all people, prince, etc.

(The text continues in the words of the Monolith Inscription, § 596, with the following variants:)

1. the four regions feel themselves threatened, the cities are shaken;

2. son of Assur-nâsir-pal, exalted prince whose priesthood etc.

3. (After last words of § 597:) Conqueror from Lake Van and Erçek Gōlü, to the Mediterranean, as far as Mount Amanus,— I brought the Hittite-land to its farthest border under my sway. My hands conquered from the source of the Tigris to the source of the Euphrates. I overwhelmed all lands from Enzite to Suhni, from Suhni to Melidi, from Melidi to Daiaeni, from Daiaeni to Arsashkun, from Arsashkun to Gilzani, from Gilzani to Hubushkia, from the land of Namri to the Persian Gulf, which they call Bitter Sea, so that they were like the mounds of cities, left by the flood.

C. ADDITIONAL FRAGMENTS FROM ASSUR

1. (KAH, II #109) Assur, the great lord, king of all the great gods,…… Ea, king of the deep, lord of wisdom, …… Shamash, judge of heaven and earth, ……Ishtar, lady of battle and combat,…… who lordship, might ..... Shalmaneser, king ruler ...... who finds his ways among the most difficult paths.

Throne inscription

Shalmaneser, the mighty king, king of the universe, the king without rival, the absolute ruler, the powerful one of the four regions of the world, who shatters the might of the princes of the whole world, who has smashed all of his foes like pots, the mighty hero, the unsparing, who gives no quarter in battle, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of the universe, king of Assyria; grandson of Turkulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of Assyria, conqueror from the upper sea to the lower sea,—the lands of Hatti, Luhute, Adri, Labnana, Kuk, Tabali, Melidi, and discoverer of the sources of the Tigris and the Euphrates.

The statue inscription

Shalmaneser, the great king, the mighty king, king of all the four regions of the world, the powerful, the mighty rival of the princes of the universe, the great ones, the king, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of the universe, king of Assyria; grandson of Turkulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of Assyria; conqueror of Enzi, Gilzânu, Hubushkia, and Uratu,— I brought about their overthrow and burst upon them like fire. I snatched away from Ahûni, son of Adini, his gods, his armies, his land, and his household goods, for the people of my land.

Inscriptions at the source of the Tigris

685 1. (KAH, II, # I07) Shalmaneser, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, king of all the great peoples, who with the aid of the gods Shamash and Adad, his helpers, marched forth in might and brought under his [control] mighty mountain regions from East to West; the powerful, unsparing king, who advanced in pursuit of his enemies and victoriously trampled down streams and difficult mountains, so that they were like the remains of a city left by the flood; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of Assyria, grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of Assyria, conqueror from Lake Van. to the Mediterranean. 687 2. To the great gods Assur, Sin, Shamash, Adad and Ishtar, who love my kingship, who make great my name: Shalmaneser, king of the universe, king of Assyria, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, [king of Assyria], grandson of Tukulti­Urta, king of Assyria; conqueror from Lake Van to the Mediterranean. 689 3. Shalmaneser, the great king, the [mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, king of all of the great peoples, the prince], the priest of Assur, (who) with the aid of the gods his helpers (Shamash and Adad), marched out in might and brought under his control] mighty mountain regions from East, [to West. the powerful], the unsparing king, who, fighting at the front and advancing in pursuit of his foes, has trampled them down victoriously, so that they were like a ruin left by the flood. 692 4. To the great kings, Assur, Adad, Sin, Shamash, and Ishtar, who love my kingship, who, for a rule of power and might have made great my honored name: Shalrnaneser, king of all peoples, viceroy of Assur, the mighty king, king of Assyria; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of the universe, king of Assyria, grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of Assyria. <I was> conqueror from Lake Van to the Mediterranean.

Miscellaneous Building Inscriptions

A. FROM ASSUR

1. (KAH, II, # I07) Palace of Shalmaneser, king of the universe, king of Assyria; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of the universe, king of Asssyria; grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of Assyria.

2. (KAH, II, #101) has an additional phrase at the end.

Shalmaneser, the mighty king, king of the universe, the king of Assyria; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria; grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of Assyria; is builder of this house.

3. A somewhat different text is found in (KAH, II. #108)

Shalmaneser ……… prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, priest of Assur; son of Tukulti­Urta, priest of Assur,

4. Shalmaneser, king of the universe, [king of Assyria]; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of the universe, [king of Assyria]; grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of Assyria.

5. KAH, II. No. I02 Shalmaneser, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria; grandson of Tukulti-Urta, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria; builder of the city wall of Assur.

6. KAH, I, Nos. 26–28 Shalmaneser king of the universe, king of Assyria priest of Assur, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of the universe, king of Assyria priest of Assur, son of Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of Assyria priest of Assur, for his life and the peace of his city.

7. KAH, II, No. 97Shalmaneser, prefect of Assur; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, prefect of Assur: grandson of Tukulti-Urta, prefect of Assur for life, for the welfare of his city.

8. Shalmaneser, king of the universe, king of Assyria; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, king of Assyria; grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of Assyria. I got booty into my possession from the great sea of Amurru, the Mediterranean, and from the Persian Gulf, which they call the Bitter Sea.

9. Shalmaneser, prefect of Enlil, priest of Assur, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, priest of Assur, grandson of Tukulti-Urta, priest of Assur, conqueror from the upper sea to the lower sea, even the Persian Gulf, which they call the Bitter Sea, who marched to the Hittite-land, who brought it under his control to its farthest border: I went to Babylon, Borsippa and Kutha and offered my sacrifices.

B. FROM CALAH

Shalmaneser, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, son of Assur-nâsir-pal, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, grandson of Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, king of Assyria: Brick. belonging to the structure of the zigurrat of Calah.

The Black Obelisk inscription

(1–21) Assur, the great lord, king of all the great gods; Anu, king of the Igigi and Anunnaki, the lord of lands; Enlil, the exalted, father of the gods, the creator; Ea, king of the Deep, who determines destiny; Sin, king of the tiara, exalted in splendor; Adad, mighty, pre-eminent, lord of abundance; Shamash, judge of heaven and earth, director of all; Marduk, master of the gods, lord of law; Urta, valiant one of the Igigi and the Anunnaki, the all-powerful god; Nergal, the ready, king of battle; Nusku, bearer of the shining scepter, the god who decides; Ninlil, wife of Enlil, mother of the great gods; Ishtar, lady of conflict and battle, whose delight is warfare, great gods, who choose destinies, and who have made my kingdom great.

Shalmaneser, king of all peoples, lord, priest of Assur, mighty king, king of all the four regions, Sun of all peoples, despot of all lands; son of Assur-nâsir-pal, the high priest, whose priesthood was acceptable to the gods and who brought in submission at his feet all the countries; glorious offspring of Tukulti-Urta, who slew all of his foes and overwhelmed them like a flood.

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