Intro to Greek
Accents were invented around 250 BC, but not implemented in general use until the 6th c., AD. Much of out literature make occasional use, although not always the same way.
οι, υι, ει = ι = ‘ee’
υ = ι
γ = ‘hy’ before a, e, or i vowels; n before γ, κ, or χ; voiced χ before most others
β,γ, or δ = English b, g, or d following nasals (μ, ν): γαμβρος, ανδρας, αγγελος. (γambrōs, andrōs, angleōs)
υ = ü
rough breathing (‘) observed through some of the period in some areas
β is labial ‘v’ (like soft b in Spanish)
Case endings: nomnitive (subject), genitive (of x, or x’s), dative (to, for, by means of x), accusative (object), vocative (hey, x!)
Romans 16:20, "But the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly."
"But Satan[a] shortly under your feet[a] will crush the God[n] of peace[g]."
All nouns (including most proper names) have one of three: masculine, feminine, neuter
Some (e.g. ανθροπος) can change based on who is being spoken of
Most adjectives change to match their nouns
1st, 2nd, 3rd, plurals. No gender.
Time and duration
Present = continuing, even if in the past, but can be simple present
Historacal present intensifies the action: “Yesterday, he runs to the store”
Aorist = complete simple action usually in past, but sometimes not
“Let the women be silent” in 1 Cor might better be translated “Let the women shut-up” – it is not ongoing continuous action.
Perfect = as in English, past completed action
Pluperfect = previously completed action
Indicative = simple action
Imperative = command
Subjunctive = probability or possibility
Let us do …
Optative (50x in NT)
That it might do …
If x then y
Similar to subjunctive but less sure of itself
Oh, that x would do…
Like ‘–ing’ endings (participles in English)
I am currently sleeping.
But also ‘-er/-or” endings
Or as a substantive (-ing gerunds in English) = a verb functioning as a noun
Since he was sleeping, he was happy.
When they arrived, we started the service.
Studying Greek makes me happy.
"To be is to do – Socrates; To do is to be – Sartre; Do Be Do Be Do - Sinatra" (Kurt Vonnegut)
Note that the above could be verbless sentences (not legal in English, but common Greek): Dog white (κύων λεύκος) would translate as, “a dog is white.” [note also that in this sentence we find two words which are learnable as cognates: λεύκος is part of the word ‘leukemia” [characterized by an abnormal increase of white blood cells – what do you think the Greek word αίμα is?], and κύων is cognate with ‘hound’ [the κ sometimes transforms into an ‘h’ when it comes into English).